Heliocentric theory is wrong

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There are four pieces of solid evidence that heliocentric theory is wrong (that I know of). The first one requires a bit of visualization but is very difficult to explain otherwise. Three others are 99.99% certain bordering on the ridiculous. You would literally have to make stuff up to try and counter them (and they have!). So without further ado, let’s begin.
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Exhibit A – Where is the constant wind?
Exhibit B – Hovering, flying and falling
Exhibit C – Hardly any stellar parallax
Exhibit D – Scientific experiments
Conclusion
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Exhibit A – Where is the constant wind?

The density of the Earth has been calculated at 5,515 kg/m3 (whether accurate or not is unknown). The density of air is 1.204 kg/m3 at room temperature, 4580 times less dense than the Earth.

A denser solid object does not carry a less dense gas along with it when it moves. This is self-evident as it is the basis of aerodynamics as shown in the video below.

dog out window
A moving solid object (100km/h car) leaves a gas (air) behind, creating a 100km/h wind in the perceived opposite direction of the moving car.

When the solid planes are more perpendicular, it will push gas (such as air) away from the solid object, such as a fan. The Earth, although a spinning squashed globe, would push a little air out into space due to its slight undulations but by and large it would be very aerodynamic, as this man spinning a basketball shows.

spinning ball
A very aerodynamic globe.

Heliocentric theory states that the Earth rotates at 1675km/h at the equator, 1049km/h in London, and 231km/h in Alert, northern Canada. This rotation would cause winds of almost equal speeds on the Earth’s surface… constantly.

The fastest wind speed known to man is a F5 Incredible tornado with wind speeds of 420-511 km/h. The tornado in Oklamohma in 1999 which killed 38 people and destroyed 8000 homes traveled at 486km/h; the devastation of which we can see below.

Tornado- Oklahoma
If 486km/h winds did this, what would 1675km/h do?

There is nowhere on Earth that has a constant wind speed of between 1675km/h and 231km/h. If there were, nobody living below Greenland could venture outside. We would be all living underground in caves.

Sometimes there are days of no wind, sometimes a mild breeze. The wind travels in all kinds of directions, sometimes changing by the second. Clouds move with the wind and can travel in any direction, but mostly go from West to East. This contradicts heliocentric theory as the Earth is supposed to rotate West to East, which would create winds going in the opposite direction East to West. Oops!

Another piece of self-evident incredulity. There’s more.
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Exhibit B – Hovering, flying and falling

Even more obvious is the fact that the Earth does not rotate under hovering objects. A helicopter which hovers above the ground at ANY height from 1 meter all the way to its upper limit of around 8000 meters NEVER experiences the ground traveling 231km/h to 1675km/h West to East, or in any direction in fact.

hovering1
Nope, the Earth is not moving.
hovering2
Still not moving. Who’d a thunk it.

The same applies to those machines which traverse the sky, such as airplanes. The only differential between a one-way and return flight is changes in wind speed and direction.

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the rotation of the Earth has no effect on the travel time of an aircraft… it is the headwinds and tailwinds that cause the change in travel times… a mere 65 mph wind is more than enough to cause a difference in travel time of five hours when you are traveling long distances!

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Let’s check a flight along the equator just to be sure. Maldives to Singapore and back fits the bill. Singapore Airlines has two flights come up. Maldives to Singapore (West to East) takes 4 hours 45 minutes for both flights and Singapore to Maldives (East to West) takes 4 hours 30 minutes and 4 hours 25 minutes respectively.

The Earth is supposed to rotate at 1675km/h West to East at these locations which are 3388km apart. A Boeing 777 travels at 885km/h at 10,675m. Do I really need to do the math?

Flying from Singapore to the Maldives would take about an hour (including take off and landing) if the Earth were rotating under the plane. Going the other way, it is worse as the plane can only fly half as fast as a rotating 1675km/h Earth and so you would have to continue flying all the way around the globe East to West just to get back to Singapore. This is an obvious fallacy.

asia_ref_2000
Singapore to Maldives is a one-way trip with a rotating Earth.

So, we have gone from 8000m to 10,675m altitude and still the Earth does not move under our feet. If we go any higher there won’t be many air molecules left to be magically Velcroed to the solid Earth’s surface by a mystical and yet unknown force which there must be for heliocentric theory to exist. But let’s go higher anyway.

As mentioned in my first post on the mysterious disappearing stars at high altitude, amateurs can now send weather balloons up into the stratosphere as high as 36,000m. At these heights only about 1% of the air is left, but these few air molecules must also magically stick to the solid surface of the Earth. All these different densities and all somehow staying with the Earth.

Look at the time these balloons are in the air and the difference in distance between landing and take-off. Here’s the first one: Launched at 13:07:38, hit the ground at 16:04:40, highest altitude 29.78Km, distance from launch 108.4 Km! Launched in Maine, USA would give a rotating Earth speed of 1181km/h (45° latitude). That means the Earth should have moved 3500km under the balloon making it land in the middle of USA, but it did not. (The second example on that website page is even worse!)

Let’s go higher. Felix Baumgartner on his world record free-fall jump reached 38,969m altitude and spent 2 and a half hours ascending, 4:19 minutes falling to the ground, and 7 minutes parachuting the rest of the way down. His distance from launch:

Felix-Baumgartner-Landing
70.5km!

So, the 1% of surface air density and all the other air densities on the way to the ground and Felix himself being obviously heavier than air all moved with the rotating Earth in tandem, by some magical mystical force unknown to man. At what height would Felix have experienced the Earth rotating below him? 50km? 70km? 100km? The heliocentric advocates will have to make up a magic number. Why not, it is all fantasy after all.

Let’s continue.
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Exhibit C – Hardly any stellar parallax

The stars revolve 360° in 24 hours in an anti-clockwise fashion around the north polar star in the northern hemisphere, and clockwise around the southern star in the southern hemisphere. Photographers take photos with very long shutter speeds to show this effect.

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Rotating stars in the sky at night.

This, you may think, is a good case for a rotating Earth; but on it’s own it is also a good case for a geocentric one, as it demonstrates that either the Earth is moving or the heavens.

However, after 6 months, those EXACT same stars are at the EXACT same location, as can be seen with the naked eye, at which they had been 6 months previously. The annual change in the position of stars in the sky is called stellar parallax. You can demonstrate this lack of parallax by following this experiment devised by Samuel Rowbotham of Zetetic Astronomy.

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Take two carefully-bored metallic tubes, not less than six feet in length, and place them one yard asunder, on the opposite sides of a wooden frame, or a solid block of wood or stone: so adjust them that their centres or axes of vision shall be perfectly parallel to each other. Now, direct them to the plane of some notable fixed star, a few seconds previous to its meridian time. Let an observer be stationed at each tube and the moment the star appears in the first tube let a loud knock or other signal be given, to be repeated by the observer at the second tube when he first sees the same star. A distinct period of time will elapse between the signals given. The signals will follow each other in very rapid succession, but still, the time between is sufficient to show that the same star is not visible at the same moment by two parallel lines of sight when only one yard asunder. A slight inclination of the second tube towards the first tube would be required for the star to be seen through both tubes at the same instant. Let the tubes remain in their position for six months; at the end of which time the same observation or experiment will produce the same results–the star will be visible at the same meridian time, without the slightest alteration being required in the direction of the tubes: from which it is concluded that if the Earth had moved one single yard in an orbit through space, there would at least be observed the slight inclination of the tube which the difference in position of one yard had previously required. But as no such difference in the direction of the tube is required, the conclusion is unavoidable, that in six months a given meridian upon the Earth’s surface does not move a single yard, and therefore, that the Earth has not the slightest degree of orbital motion.

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Traditionally, stellar parallax has been notoriously difficult to measure with even the best of modern equipment.
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The angles involved in these calculations are very small and thus difficult to measure. The nearest star to the Sun (and thus the star with the largest parallax), Proxima Centauri, has a parallax of 0.7687 ± 0.0003 arcsec.

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There are 3,600 arcseconds in 1 degree, 180 of which cover the sky at night. No wonder we can’t see any movement with the naked eye. Even so, movement for only a tiny fraction of the stars can be measured at all even by modern equipment!
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In 1989, the satellite Hipparcos was launched primarily for obtaining parallaxes and proper motions of nearby stars, increasing the reach of the method tenfold. Even so, Hipparcos is only able to measure parallax angles for stars up to about 1,600 light-years away, a little more than one percent of the diameter of the Milky Way Galaxy. The European Space Agency’s Gaia mission, due to launch in 2013, will be able to measure parallax angles to an accuracy of 10 microarcseconds, thus mapping nearby stars (and potentially planets) up to a distance of tens of thousands of light-years from Earth.

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There are an estimated 100 to 200 billion galaxies in the universe (which is bunk, as there are no galaxies) each with up to 100 trillion stars! So being able to detect movement in 1% of the stars of our own galaxy is a miniscule amount. We also know about our space agencies’ weird and wonderful orbiting machines, so even this 1% is unlikely to be true.

This is a big problem for heliocentric theory which states that every 24 hours the Earth rotates on its axis at 1675km/h, revolving around the Sun at 107,000km/h, which in turn moves around the center of the galaxy at 900,000km/h, which moves in the universe at 2,160,000km/h!

Apart from the atmosphere disappearing at these speeds, how is there no stellar parallax, especially considering that all the other stars and galaxies are revolving around each other and the Earth as well. The sky must be a right mess! Each new day must bring a brand new unique constellation in the sky at night with some new stars getting nearer so they can be seen with the naked eye and some traveling further away and disappearing never to return for thousands or millions of years.

Before we move on, this lack of stellar parallax is the reason why advocates of heliocentric theory give the unbelievably enormous distances the heavenly bodies must be from Earth. They can’t measure it! The stars must be thousands and millions of light years away (with the Milky Way 100,000 light years across, 1 light year being 9.46 trillion kilometers!) because there is no (or little) detectable stellar parallax; otherwise heliocentric theory would be definitely wrong.

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It is clear from Euclid’s geometry that the effect would be undetectable if the stars were far enough away, but for various reasons such gigantic distances involved seemed entirely implausible: it was one of Tycho Brahe’s principal objections to Copernican heliocentrism that in order for it to be compatible with the lack of observable stellar parallax, there would have to be an enormous and unlikely void between the orbit of Saturn and the eighth sphere (the fixed stars).

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Not only is there no evidence for such astronomical distances, but we have now proven that the stars are approximately 4000 miles away!

Does making stuff up to support a theory lacking any observational or experimental evidence sound like science to you?

Speaking of which…
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Exhibit D – Scientific experiments

How do we know it is not the heavens or “space” which moves above us, instead of the Earth, which causes both the rotation of the stars and any of their hard-to-detect parallax. We now know it is the former, thanks to an experiment in 1871 by Astronomer Royal, George Airy; which is this:

If stellar parallax is too small to see with the naked eye, then why not artificially increase it. If the Earth rotates at the same speed constantly, then by slowing the light down (by filling the telescope with water), the angle of star movement would increase. If stellar parallax increased then the telescope would have to be tilted more to see the same star and prove a rotating Earth once and for all.

And guess what? As confirmed by others, the most careful measurements gave the same angle for a telescope with water as for one filled with air. This is called “Airy’s failure”. It proved the rotation of the heavens, not Earth, which moves stars.

airy1
The angle stayed the same, proving that the Earth does not rotate.

The heliocentric advocates were now desperate. What was needed was another observable experiment to still offer the possibility of a rotating Earth. Enter Foucault’s pendulum in 1885. This pendulum swings back and forth, each swing moving slightly to the right in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere until, at the poles, one full circle is achieved in 24 hours. It doesn’t move left or right at all at the equator.

California_Academy_of_Sciences_Foucault_Pendulum_Clock
Foucault Pendulum in California
Foucault
Not to scale, but illustrating the movement.

As you have noticed, this is the same phenomenon as the stars rotating every 24 hours around the polar star, which was proved not to be caused by a rotating Earth thanks to George Airy. Unfortunately for the heliocentric supporters, Foucault’s pendulum also had a problem. In 1954 and 1959, Maurice Allais noticed that during a solar eclipse, which lasted 2 and a half hours, the angle of the pendulum changed dramatically by 13.5°. This has been repeatedly observed with positive results on most of the subsequent eclipses, which obviously means that the pendulum isn’t registering the Earth’s rotation, but the motion of something else instead.

With Airy’s failure proving that the Earth does not rotate, the heliocentric theorists needed to quickly show with no further doubt that the Earth rotated. Enter two staunch supporters of heliocentricity, Albert Michelson and Edward Morley, who in 1887 set up a device which split up light: one beam in the direction of the Earth’s rotation, and one at right angles. The two light beams then recombined and hit a photographic plate. The difference is speed of the two beams would create an interference pattern. They expected to measure a speed of 30 km/s as that was the speed of the Earth’s supposed rotation, but instead registered a variable difference of between 1 and 10 km/s each time the experiment was repeated. They called this a “null” result. This proves that the Earth is not rotating and at the same time proved the existence of the ether.

M-M experiment
Gosh, the traveling light wasn’t rotating with the Earth. Who’d a thunk it?

It didn’t stop there, Georges Sagnac, and Henry Gale conducted similar experiments, but on a rotating platform, which again demonstrated the existence of the ether, already proved by default in 1871 and 1885 by combining the results from George Airy and Foucault’s pendulum, and also in 1887 by the Michelson-Morley experiment.

How do you think the advocates of heliocentric theory responded? Why, they made something up of course! What else could they do but invent another wild theory to play down these experimental results and lead us further into the cesspit of fallacy. Enter showbiz academic of the 20th century, Einstein and the special theory of relativity.

albert-einstein-colorized
Enter the clowns.

Special relativity was invented to make sure all these experiments still gave heliocentric theory a chance of being correct. It needed objects to shrink to a specific size in direct proportion to its speed. These objects weren’t measured! The concept had never been observed at all. It was metaphysical only. But it had to be correct, otherwise the unthinkable would be true.
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The rescue operation was performed by means of a purely metaphysical concept lifted directly from Professors Fitzgerald and Lorentz, who had also been trying to explain the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment, and renamed by him the Special Theory of Relativity. What was suggested was that if the dimensions of an object in motion were assumed to shrink exactly in proportion to the speed at which it was traveling by exactly the necessary amount, mathematical calculations could be made to show that the Earth was in motion after all. No one has ever seen an object shrink as a result of being in motion, and indeed one of the world’s leading authorities on relativity, Dr. Herbert Dingle, was later to dismiss the theory of relativity as metaphysical nonsense with no basis on what could be observed.

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Making up a new branch of mathematics to explain the results of experiments that disagrees with your worldview does not a proof make! As a J.J. Thomson once said:

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We have Einstein’s space, de Sitter’s space, expanding universes, contracting universes, vibrating universes, mysterious universes. In fact the pure mathematician may create universes just by writing down an equation, and indeed if he is an individualist he can have a universe of his own.

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However, when you make stuff up not based on anything in the real world, it is bound to run into trouble.

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Ironically, when Special Relativity failed due to its internal contradictions, Einstein had to invent General Relativity to shore up the façade, and in the process he had to take back the very two foundations he had discarded in Special Relativity, namely, (a) that nothing can exceed the speed of light and (b) the existence of ether. In the end, Einstein’s theories were a mass of contradictions which are covered over by obtuse mathematical equations.

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Despite this nonsense, the heliocentric “authorities” pushed it through with all their media power and academic might so that once this new mathematics was firmly established, they had carte blanche to sneak in other bad “science” when experimental observations went against them, like black holes, dark matter, wormholes and other such unobservable and unverifiable nonsense. The worst offence though was trying to tie in the Coriolis effect of a rotating Earth with observable atmospheric phenomena. The Coriolis effect is an optical illusion whereby an object traveling in a straight line is seen to be moving in a curved one instead because the observer is on a rotating platform.

wikipedia_coriolis_effect
The Coriolis optical illusion. You are the red dot. Below is what you observe. Above is what actually happens.
the-coriolis-effect
This is the complete pattern and scale of ANY Coriolis effect on the Earth. If something in the real world doesn’t match this, it can NOT be the Coriolis effect!

They say it is this effect which causes moving objects to be deflected in a clockwise direction in the northern hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the southern hemisphere; an example of which are large cyclones. This is obviously false. The Coriolis effect is NOT a force, it is an optical illusion. It cannot cause objects to be deflected; their trajectories remain the same, which is straight. Cyclones do not “travel in straight lines, but just appear to be curved because we are on the surface of a rotating sphere”. Their size ranges from under 222km to over 888km making their curves far too tight and localized. Plus there are very high altitude images looking down on cyclones from above. Is the camera rotating with the Earth to get this curved perspective?

cyclone from above
Is the camera rotating with the Earth? How can a cyclone twisting on itself be a straight line? Is this image even real?
cyclone - Australia
A tropical cyclone in Australia twisting down to Earth is not a straight line.

And what about smaller vortex phenomena like Tornadoes which average only 150m across. Where is the Coriolis effect now?

tornado1
A 150m wide tornado is really a straight line!

If you wish to study further the fallacy of linking the Coriolis effect with atmospheric phenomena then Miles Mathis‘ work is a must. Otherwise, those inclined to understand cyclones and tornadoes would do well to study the relationship between gravity and electromagnetism, and vortex dynamics instead, as even physicists admit that the Coriolis “effect” and electromagnetism is eerily similar. (What a surprise!)
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Conclusion

So far we have proved that:

  • The Earth does not tilt.
  • The Earth does not rotate.
  • The Sun moves, not the Earth.
  • The heavens move, not the Earth, which means that:
  • “Space” or the ether moves and not the Earth.
  • “Space” moves in a circular motion (and is probably a vortex).

 

http://www.wildheretic.com/heliocentric-theory-is-wrong-pt1/

Pugnacious Parasites and the Provocation

by Zen Gardner

Everyone knows the unscrupulously manipulative always accuse others of what they themselves are guilty of. It’s an age old trick to obfuscate the obvious and buy time to accomplish their purposes.

Lying is their pathological language.

Such behavior, especially in high profile public figures, is unthinkable, yet for some inexplicable reason it is not just tolerated, but ironically readily expected.

People still buy into it. And the reaction always remains the same. Complacency on the most part, and a rising sense of anger in others. No doubt a byproduct of cognitive dissonance and range of other deliberately triggered mechanisms, but surreal just the same.

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A Bald Faced Lie is a Punch in the Face

This is essentially what transpires when someone knowingly lies to your face. It jars your mind and pushes you back on the defensive and you’re left to try and understand why your heart and head are not matching up with what you just heard.

Everyone, except these willingly possessed psychopaths, has a conscience. And it’s faithful to speak to us. This is why humanity has been conditioned to not respond to it, and also why fear is so essential to their game. When our signals are scrambled, our gut reaction belittled and intuition denied we’re left in a daze.

This is exactly what they want to happen. It gives them time to keep executing their programs, especially when a complicit media candies and bandies it about as if it’s true and nothing to question.

This is the whirled we’re in and up against. Again, another reason to stay fully conscious and circumspect and thoroughly educated as to their techniques and true nature. Not pretty stuff to look at, but understand it we must.

Abject bullies like Israel are relatively easy to spot – if we grasp their obvious odious nature and where they’re coming from. The bully in the playground works by pure intimidation and force and will resort to any form of expression they can – loud mouthed intimidation, brandishing weapons, and all bathed in swaggering bravado right up to and including physical force to get their point across.

Send a signal is their MO. And those who don’t cower, teach them a lesson. Again, just look at the abject genocidal insanity of the Israeli occupiers. Now that they’ve gained control of most of the world’s media, especially in the west, what they say goes. And if the media or governments don’t toe their line well enough they’ll hear from these vociferous, self serving elitist beasts.

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The Provocation

Another aspect of bullying is provoking your supposed enemy. The US is at this big time, deliberately firing up the conservative right and constitutionalists. It’s full on deliberate. The opulent extravagance of the Obamas, the clearly deliberate crashing of the economy, the flagrant trashing of patriotism and removal of individual rights are all carefully planned. Threatening to disarm fiercely independent Americans is an essential part of this agenda.

The mass migration agenda is the same. While the US gets inundated with needy Central Americans with clear governmental manipulation, Europe is similarly being swept with an influx that threatens their economies and cultural identities.

What’s most amazing about this is anyone can read this agenda for themselves from UN statements and documents and the Agenda 21 or 2030 programs. That so many can’t be bothered to look into much of this is outright frightening.

Israel again is a master example of aggressive agendas designed to push back common sense and reason as well as true empathy for the plight of others. A clearly apartheid state while claiming they were the victims of such treatment is completely nonsensical. It flies in the face of simple reason and logic. Yet they get away with it. How? They’ve taken over the media and political structures through the same tactics of intimidation and potential consequence by their massive Mossad/CIA/MI6 black hand of control.

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Strategy of Tension and Not Just Provoking, but Demonizing Your Subjects

What’s amazing is the thoroughness of psychopathic social engineers. This is where we need to wake up and get smart.

They operate according to something called the Strategy of Tension, keeping peoples and nations nervous and afraid and more inclined to rely on government and enforcement to protect them. It also homogenizes cultures in a form of group think and a state of malleability due to this state of fear.

The extension of their influence is far and wide. Mass shootings, weird mass “accidents” at certain interims, and most of all false flags, never mind assassinations and the like. This has been the weapon of choice for every totalitarian regime for eons and a real favorite of this latest push for world dominion by these psychopaths.

The end result, ironically, is not entirely to direct everyone’s attention to a foreign enemy. That’s just a ruse and excuse for genocide and expansion. The enemy to them is within – us. We must be contained like animals and malleable to their every whim.

OKbomb.J

So-called domestic terrorism has been a meme on the rise. The deliberate migration of “potential muslim extremists” is a key part of this, as any and every incident they stage can more and more be justified and conveniently blamed on outside influences. The end result is the same: clampdown on the populace.

Just look at this propaganda piece brought to you by the Rothschild/Rockefeller owned and CIA/Mossad/MI6 et all run Reuters news agency:

U.S. eyes ways to toughen fight against domestic extremists

The U.S. Justice Department is considering legal changes to combat what it sees as a rising threat from domestic anti-government extremists, senior officials told Reuters, even as it steps up efforts to stop Islamic State-inspired attacks at home.

Extremist groups motivated by a range of U.S.-born philosophies present a “clear and present danger,” John Carlin, the Justice Department’s chief of national security, told Reuters in an interview. “Based on recent reports and the cases we are seeing, it seems like we’re in a heightened environment.” (source)

The agenda is obvious. If we’re looking. The language as well is a giveaway, the smooth talking and use of buzz phrases like “clear and present danger”, “national security” and the like are rife.

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The Subtler Techniques of Deceit

This may seem a bit tangential to the main point I’m making here but is nonetheless essential information if we’re to more fully understand how these tactics are carried out on subtler levels.

You’ll see the following logical fallacy tactics in use continually, but unfortunately most people fall for them for lack of discernment as well as awareness of just what deceitful people are capable of doing.

This is a big subject well worth researching on your own but here are a few to get you started:

1. The Strawman Argument – Misrepresenting someone’s argument to make it easier to attack.

Example: After Will said that we should put more money into health and education, Warren responded by saying that he was surprised that Will hates our country so much that he wants to leave it defenseless by cutting military spending.

You’ll see this in use continually especially in the political and government arenas. It’s very clever really, side-stepping the real issue and misdirecting the argument to a false issue having nothing to do with the original question or discussion.

2. The False Choice Dilemma Giving an extremely narrow range of choice to an issue or situation that is much wider than is being portrayed with virtually unlimited possibilites.

Baby Bush’s carefully framed post 9/11 statement is the classic geopolitical example: “You’re either with us, or you’re with the terrorists.”

You have to admit that’s pretty damn galvanizing. But in what way? Now you can’t question what the “good guys” are doing or you might be with “axis of evil”? That’s what it’s since come down to. Again, cleverly staged propaganda by these very intelligent psychopaths. Keeping the public drugged and dumbed down would sure work in their favor, wouldn’t it?

3. Correlation versus Causation. You can apply this across the board. It’s so easy to assume what we’re told is true in this context. Beware.

The easiest example is when two events occur at the same time, or in close apparent relation with each other. One is then seen as the cause of the other. An increase in robberies occurs at the same time that jobs cuts are announced, for example. There is no evidence to support the claim that the expected job losses caused the increase in robberies.

This is best seen in false flag events when the enemy or culprit is named before any investigation whatsoever. If someone “claims” responsibility it’s case closed, as they go after their pre-selected patsy to confirm this or already executed this planted persona on the spot. Done deal.

4. Overgeneralization or Oversimplification.

This is another framework for logical fallacies. Generalizing from too small of a population, or reducing complex social issues to only one choice or the other, and leaving out the complex issues that do not support the claim are examples of fallacies that stem from overgeneralization and oversimplification. (source of last two citations)

These are just a few examples. It’s a field well worth exploring and getting a handle on. When you dissect and analyze these mechanisms it is extremely empowering.

angry-awareness

All That To Say…

Be on the look out. Stay alert and awake and aware. What we see around us is not what we get, unless we fall for it and thereby make it our reality. Personal empowerment in such an environment as we’re living in is essential.

But you have to do the work.

Psychopaths are running the external world. It’s more evident by the day to more and more people. Those not fully on board even at higher and middle levels are being bullied into it within the power structure. They can see who the apparent heirs are to the coming positions of power so they’re buckling under the pressure in an effort to save their hides.

Others at many levels of society are waking up and looking for ways to expose this nefarious agenda and help humanity push back in whatever way it can. We need to keep our voices loud and clear and distinctly truthful and helpful.

There may be many vectors by which they’re coming at us, be they geonengineering, manipulated food, societal crackdowns, media programming and the like, but we’re clearly up to the challenge.

After all, we’re here! We’re thriving just fine in spite of all they do, and we’re growing stronger by the day.

Never forget that, let down your guard, nor grow weary in well doing.

This is our day – not theirs. Let’s fulfill our mission, and use the massive spiritual weapons at our disposal – love, truth, our connection to Source and essential eternal nature which can never be taken away.

Stay true.

Love always, Zen

ZenGardner.com

Flu Hoax & the Genocidal Agenda Behind Swine Flu Vaccinations

are-flu-shots-safe

From Ken Adachi, Editor
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swinefluindex.shtml
October 6, 2009

Swine Flu Hoax & the Genocidal Agenda Behind Swine Flu Vaccinations: Index of Articles

The Swine Flu hoax, and most importantly, the dangers of taking the Swine Flu vaccine will remain at the top of Latest Articles on this page as it holds the greatest priority, but the volume of Swine flu-related articles had grown so large, it was necessary to create a separate index page to contain those articles alone. I will leave a few of the more recent Swine Flu-related posted articles here, but go to the link immediately below to examine all of the latest Swine Flu articles, including video clips and audio files from Gary Null, Dr A True Ott, and others leading the charge to expose the massive pro-vaccination fraud being perpetuated by government, main stream media, Big Medicine, and sundry pharmaceutical shills.

Bear in mind that the Swine Flu hoax and the manufactured hysteria and anxiety surrounding the Swine flu vaccine are being used as DIVERSIONS to keep the public’s mind off the intentional undermining of the steadily declining buying power of the U.S. dollar, the mysterious “missing” TRILLIONS from the Pentagon during the Executive occupation by the Bush/Rumsfeld/Cheney crime syndicate, the ZERO benefits realized by the American public from handing over of 850 BILLION taxpayer dollars to banksters, insurance companies, and Wall Street brokerage firms, and the ZERO benefits to the American taxpayer of the 750 BILLION Stimulus bill, which has only succeeded in FURTHER lining the pockets of the criminals who are robbing us and the political, military, and law enforcement minions whose TREASONOUS betrayal of their Constitutional obligations are bought with and paid for with OUR money.

The upcoming Copenhagen treaty in December and the resultant sell-out of American sovereignty, the nationwide Swine flu vaccine poisoning currently underway, and Obama’s October 24, 2009 declaration of a “National Emergency“, are intended to come together in a grand Machiavellian scheme to set the stage for enhanced law enforcement/military incursion, occupation, or hegemony over the American public’s day to day life. The treason is moving into a new and dangerous phase. We must recognize the gravity of their intentions and become pro-active in whatever capacity we can help, to stymie the takeover agenda and convince those relatives or family members or friends who are playing ANY role in betraying the people of this country into a New World Order nightmare, to cease their participation and cooperation in that destructive agenda and stand for liberty and survival of the American dream. The New World Order takeover scheme would collapse overnight like a house of cards if the American-bornminions in government, military, and law enforcement STOP cooperating in the takedown and destruction of America. There will be plenty of jobs with healthy paychecks for all when we start re-building this country’s industrial and manufacturing infrastructure and start taking apart the stifling police state that has been erected to suffocate us. .

The Poisoned Needle by Eleanor McBean (1957) Complete book on-line (Suppressed Facts About Vaccinations)
http://www.whale.to/a/mcbean3.html

Updated Daily: Comprehensive Index of Articles on Swine Flu Hoax and Dangers of Flu Vaccine
http://www.theflucase.com/

Articles on Swine Flu Vaccine Injury & Death from Organic Health Adviser
http://organichealthadviser.com/

***Forced Vaccination is the most important issue we now face***

Ken Adachi & Don Nicoloff Radio Interview, Dec. 2, 2009 (Dec. 3, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/kenadachiInterview02dec09.shtml

UK Swine Flu Vaccine Leads to Heart Failure & Stroke (Dec. 2, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/fluvaccineheartfailure02dec09.shtml

Two Young Men Die in Slovenia from Flu Jab~ NWO Press Reports Vaccination was “too late” (Nov. 29, 2009)
http://translate.google.com/translate?js=y&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-8&u=http%3A//www.rtvslo.si/zdravje/v-24-urah-dve-novi-zrtvi-nove-gripe/218014&sl=sl&tl=en

CDC’S Own Data Confirms There Is No H1N1 Pandemic (Nov. 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/cdcnopandemic28nov09.shtml

Dr Rashid Buttar Radio Interview with Don Nicoloff, Nov. 25, 2009 (re. Cheerleader, Desiree Jennings)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/drbuttarradiointerview25nov09.shtml

The ‘Swine Flu’ Propaganda Front is Beginning to Collapse (at long last) (Nov. 19, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/mercolaswinefluscandal19nov09.shtml

French School Demands Student Vaccination; Mother Says No (Nov. 18, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/frenchschoolmandatoryvaccine18nov09.shtml

Ukraine, WHO And The Geopolitics Of Swine Flu Panic by F. William Engdahl (Nov. 17, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/EngdahlukraineWHOswineflupanic17nov09.shtml

Ken Adachi Radio Interview with Don Nicoloff, Nov. 12, 2009 (Nov. 13, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/kenadachi12nov09radiointerview13nov09.shtml

Update: Strange Chemtrail “Mist” Over Ellsworth, Wisconsin Evenings of Nov. 8-9, 2009 (Nov. 12, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/flumistfog01nov09.shtml

Brits Stage Protest Against Swine Fools in Front of Parliament (Nov. 11, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/britsrebelagainstfluvaccination11nov09.shtml

Mounting Evidence of Microchipping via Swine Flu Vaccine (Nov. 11, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swinefluvaccinemicrochips11nov09.shtml

The Poisoned Needle by Eleanor McBean (Suppressed Facts About Vaccinations) Nov. 11, 2009
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/poisonedneedle11nov09.shtml

Swine Flu: The Great Debate of 2009 (Nov. 11, 2009)
http://print-humanbeingsfirst.blogspot.com/2009/10/swine-flu-that-great-debate-of-2009.html#Affirmative-President-Obama-Declares-h1n1-Emergency

Quebec Woman (42) Dies Two Days After Swine Flu Shot (Nov. 10, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/quebecwoamndiesafterswineshot04nov09.shtml

Retroviruses Embedded in Vaccines Precipitate Autism & Chronic Diseases (Nov. 9, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swinevaccineautismdisease09nov09.shtml

Desiree Jennings Experiences Amazing Recovery with Nature-based Therapies (Nov. 8, 2009) *Miracle*
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/desireejenningsrecovery08nov09.shtml

Trumpet a Flu Vaccine “Shortage”, and Watch the Dummies Line Up… (Nov. 8, 2009)
http://www.ireport.com/docs/DOC-352595

Live Avian flu with 60% death-rate “accidentally” put in US company’s test vaccine material (Nov. 7, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/baxtervaccinecontamination10oct09.shtml

The Dangers of Swine Flu Vaccine Explained en Espanol with English Subtitles (CAMPANAS POR LA GRIPE A) Nov. 7, 2009 http://educate-yourself.org/lte/drteresaforcadesswinevaccinewarning07nov09.shtml

“Swine Flu Frustrations”, The Triumph of Propaganda by Ken Adachi (Nov. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swineflubrainwashed05nov09.shtml

Washington (Swine Flu Lies) Unplugged – Video (Nov. 6, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/washingtonunplugged06nov09.shtml

Warning Letter to School Principal and Nursing Staff to NOT Vaccinate (Nov. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/novaccinelettertoschool05nov09.shtml

Dutch Authorities Halt Pfizer Vaccine After 3 Infants Die (Nov. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/dutchpullpfizervaccine05nov09.shtml

People flock to sports area for Swine Flu vaccination (Nov. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/vaccinationandsportarena05nov09.shtml

Fighting Back: Ohioans Against Experimental and School Vaccinations (Nov. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ohioiansagainstvbaccinations05nov09.shtml

French Lawsuits Being Filed for Vaccine “Poisoning” (Oct. 23, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/frenchlawsuitsvaccinepoisoning23oct09.shtml

Do Not Take The Swine Flu Jab Until You Read These Real Life Vaccine Horror Stories (Oct. 25, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swinefluvaccinehorrorstories25oct09.shtml

Two Die Within Hours Following Swine Flu Jab in Sweden (Oct. 25, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/swedishnursesdiefromvaccine25oct09.shtml

Indonesian Imposter Declares H1N1 National Emergency (Oct. 24, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/imposterdeclaresswineemergency24oct09.shtml

Big Medicine’s Vaccine Propagandists Go into High Gear (Oct. 23, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/squalenemercuryswinefluvac23oct09.shtml

NY Health Commissioner R. Daines Suspends Flu Vaccine Mandate for Health Care Workers (Oct. 23, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/dainesretreats23oct09.shtml

Profit Drive Swine Flu Propaganda – Pump Up the Volume – Part 2 (Oct. 21, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/pringleswineflupropaganda2part21oct09.shtml

Profit Driven Swine Flu Propaganda, Pump Up the Volume Part 1 (Oct. 21, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/pringleswineflupropaganda1part21oct09.shtml

Report from Australia: Swine Flu Sheeple Lining Up (& the Thiaoouba Prophecy) Oct. 17, 2009
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/australiaswineflucampaign17oct09.shtml

Dr Henry L. Niman: Swine Flu Propaganda & Its Deadly Consequences (Oct. 16, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/swineflupropaganda16oct09.shtml

Gary Null Exposes the Myths & Lies of the Vaccine Industry (Oct. 15, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/nullandgaleexposevaccinefraud15oct09.shtml

Gary Null Blasts Swine Flu Vaccine Promoters at Sep. 29, 2009 NY State Panel Hearing (Oct. 14, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/garynullexposesswinevacfraud14oct09.shtml

Nurses Will Sue New York Over Mandated Vaccinations (Oct. 13, 2009)
http://rawstory.com/2009/10/nurses-will-sue-new-york-over-mandated-vaccinations/

Nuremberg Code, H1N1 Vaccines & Their Nazi History (Oct. 10, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/nurembergcodeswinevaccine10oct09.shtml

Gary Null Initiates Lawsuit Against FDA to Stop Swine Flu Vaccinations as Unsafe, Untested (Oct. 9, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/lawsuitswineflu09oct09.shtml

Interview with Dr. Andrew Moulden: What You Were Never Told About Vaccines (Oct. 8, 2009)
http://vactruth.com/2009/07/21/dr-andrew-moulden-interview-what-you-were-never-told-about-vaccines/

Swine Flu Vaccination Insanity: Poisoning in the Name of ‘Protection’ (Oct. 7, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/swinevaccinationinsanity07oct09.shtml

New York Nurses to Lead Resistance Against Mandatory Vaccination for Healthcare Workers? (Oct. 6, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/stearnsletternysna06oct09.shtml

Fears Live Virus in Medimmune Will Spread from Nasal Spray School Children to Family Members at Home (Oct. 6, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/livevirusesmedimmune05oct09.shtml

The Great Poisoning of America Begins, October 2009 (Oct. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/poisoningamerica05oct09.shtml

The Ineffectiveness And Dangers Of Flu Shots (Oct. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/dangersflushots05oct09.shtml

Deadly Dangers of Flu Vaccines ~ Pharmaceutical Fantasies That Kill (Oct. 2, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/deadlydangersfluvaccines11dec03.shtml

‘Immuno-Sterilization’ In Humans, A 2009 Vaccination Odyssey by Dr A True Ott (Sep 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ottimmunosterilization25sep09.shtml

Vaccinations are causing impaired blood flow (Ischemia), Chronic Illness, Disease and Death by Dr Andrew Moulden (Sep. 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/mouldenvaccinationimpairmentdisease.shtml

Safeways, Vons, Pavilion, & Costco To Offer Genocidal Vaccines with Discount Coupons! (Sep. 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/horowitzsupermarketvaccinecampaign28sep09.shtml

1. Πανδημία Γρίπης. Τί δεν μας Λένε (Swine Flu Vaccination Dangers -in Greek) Sep. 28, 2009 Greece flag
http://agisgios2.blogspot.com/2009/07/blog-post_06.html

2. ΜΙΑ ΑΛΛΗ ΑΠΟΨΗ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΓΡΙΠΗ ΚΑΙ ΤΟΥΣ ΕΜΒΟΛΙΑΣΜΟΥΣ- Πολίτες κατά των αναγκαστικών εμβολιασμών Greece flag
http://anopetra-eleos.blogspot.com/2009/07/blog-post_1423.html

Ken Adachi Sep 23 Radio Interview: Forced Vaccinations & The Courage to Resist (Sep. 24, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/sep23radiointerview24sep09.shtml

Sell Out Your Fellow Citizens for Fun & Profit! (Sep. 22, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/selloutfellowcountrymenforprofit21sep09.shtml

Chemtrails in Michigan (& The Swine Flu Agenda) Sep. 22, 2009
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/michiganchemtrails22sep09.shtml

Female Soldier Warns of Swine Flu Road Stops Starting Oct. 15, 2009 (Sep. 16, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/forcedvaccinationdrills16sep09.shtml

Massachusetts Now Tracking Residents NOT Vaccinated (Sep. 16, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/masstrackinguncax16sep09.shtml

Shocking Warnings About Swine Flu Vaccine (Sep 9, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/swinefluwarnings08sep09.shtml

French Judges Protest Secret Pandemic Decrees (Sep. 9. 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/frenchjudgesprotestkillervax09sep09.shtml

Maine Gov. Baldacci Latest NWO Sell-out to Join Rockefeller Eugenics Program (Sep. 9, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/mainegovernorlatestnwosellout02sep09.shtml

Colloidal Silver & Swine Flu: Dr. Mercola’s Tacit Retreat (& A Short Tutorial) by Ken Adachi (Sep. 7, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/colloidalsilverbasics07sep09.shtml

Swine Flu 2009 Is Weaponized 1918 ‘Spanish Flu’ by A. True Ott (June 2, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ottswinefluweapoized1918spanishflu02jun09.shtml

Bird Flu (Swine Flu) Hoax Exposed Parts 1 -12 with Dr A. True Ott
http://www.kickthemallout.com/article.php/Video-Bird_Flu_Hoax_Exposed

Governemnt Created Bio-Weapons & the Genocidal Vaccines Promoted to “Protect” You ~ Video
In Lies We Trust: The CIA, Hollywood and Bioterrorism (2007) with Dr Len Horowitz (2.5 hrs)
http://www.moviesfoundonline.com/in_lies_we_trust.php

The Swine flu ‘Pandemic’ Virus is Not Only Lab-created, It’s PATENTED! by Dr A True Ott (Sep 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/trueottverityandoracle05sep09.shtml

Sep. 12 Mass. Rally to Impeach Sen Richard Moore Over Forced Vaccination Bill S2028 (Sep. 5, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/masenrichardmooreimpeachrally05sep09.shtml

Maryland School to Require Parental Consent Before H1N1 Flu Mist Poisoning (Hallelujah!) Sep. 3, 2009
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/freefluvaccinemontgomeryctymdschools29aug09.shtml

Swine Flu Shot Linked to Killer Nerve Disease (Sep. 1, 2009)
http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2009/09/01/Swine-Flu-Shot-Linked-to-Killer-Nerve-Disease.aspx

French Health Ministry Internal Document Details Forced Vaccinations Commencing (Aug. 31, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/franceforcedswinefluvaccination31aug09.shtml

Reader Claims Mass. Forced Vaccination/Quarantine Bill Penalties “simply not true” (Aug. 31, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/massachusetts2028senatebillbetrayal31aug09.shtml

Radio Panel: Swine Flu Hoax Exposed, 3 hour Roundtable Hosted by Dr Bill Deagle (Aug. 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/billdeagleswinefluexposedradioshow28aug09.shtml

Canadian H1N1 Vaccine Protests August 28-30 (Aug. 28, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/canadiaswinefluvaccinationprotest28aug09.shtml

Swine Flu ‘Pandemic’: Manipulating the Data to Justify Worldwide Health Emergency by Michael Chossudovsky (Aug. 25, 2009)
http://www.globalresearch.ca/PrintArticle.php?articleId=14901

$1000 Per Day Fine And 30 Days In Jail For Refusing The Swine Flu Vaccine In Massachusetts? (Aug. 25, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/massvaxbillimposesfineandjail24aug09.shtml

Mom Worried About (Swine Flu) Vaccinations & ‘Proof’ for School Attendance (Aug. 25, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/swinefluvaccinesandchools25aug09.shtml

The Engineering of “Pandemics” Vaccine Induced Disease Epidemic Outbreaks by Dr A True Ott (Aug 24, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/trueottvaccineinducedepidemics24aug09.shtml

The First International Swine Flu Conference’s Disturbing Agenda (Aug. 24, 2009)
http://thebirdflupandemic.com/archives/the-first-international-swine-flu-conferences-disturbing-agenda

Dr A True Ott Radio Interviews on Swine Flu Vaccination, a Planned Genocide and the Swine Flu Hoax (Aug. 22, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/dnr/atrueottinterviews22aug09.shtml

‘Pandemic’ Vaccination: Why You Should Be Concerned by Dr A True Ott (Aug. 17, 2009)German
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/trueottpandemicvaccination17aug09.shtml

CDC Looking for Dummies to Line up for Swine Flu Shot in Eight U.S. Cities (Aug 13, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/swineflueightcities12aug09.shtml

Retired Vaccine Researcher to Jon Rappoport: “If I had a child now, the last thing I would allow is vaccination.” (Aug. 6, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/rappoportinterviewvaccineresearcherjan2002.shtml

Is the Poison Flu Backlash Beginning to Form? (Aug. 1, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/lte/davidhuddlesonswineflubacklash01aug09.shtml

Flu Is Not the Biggest Danger…It’s the Vaccine! by David Icke (July 30, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ickeswineflushot30jul09.shtml

Dangerous, Mandatory Vaccinations Coming This Fall (July 25, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/skousenmandatoryvaccinations24jul09.shtml)

World Health Organization (WHO) Moves Forward in Secrecy with Forced Vaccination and Population Reduction Agenda (July 26, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/burgermeisterwhoforcedvaccinationagenda21jul09.shtml

Squalene: The Swine Flu Vaccine’s Dirty Little Secret Exposed by Dr. J. Mercola (July 26, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/mercolasqualenedangers17jul09.shtml

Vaccinations: Deadly Immunity by Robert F. Kenndey, Jr. (July 26, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/kennedydeadlyimmmunity26jul09.shtml

Injunctions Sought to Stop Forced Swine Flu Vaccination Juggernaut (July 22, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/vcd/forcedvaccinationinjunctionsought22jul09.shtml

Swine Flu 2009 Is Weaponized 1918 ‘Spanish Flu’ by A. True Ott (June 2, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ottswinefluweapoized1918spanishflu02jun09.shtml

The Truth about Bird Flu, H5N1, Vaccines and AIDS (May 4, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/stefanlankaviralfraudexposed04may09.shtml

Somthing Wicked This Way Comes Scene I, Act II By A. True Ott, PhD, ND (April 26, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/ottsomethingwicked26apr09.shtml

Will NWO Traitors Kick off Bird Flu ‘Pandemic’ Ruse in Ohio? (Mar. 31, 2009)
http://educate-yourself.org/cn/pandemicplannedforohio29mar09.shtml

Great Web Site!
False Flag Flu & Vaccine Agenda News
http://www.falseflagflu.com/

 

Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans’ Arrival in the Americas

 

 

Video | Humans’ First Appearance in the Americas In Piauí, Brazil, archaeologists say stone tools prove that humans reached what is now Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago, upending a belief that people first arrived about 13,000 years ago.
By SIMON ROMERO

SERRA DA CAPIVARA NATIONAL PARK, Brazil — Niede Guidon still remembers her astonishment when she glimpsed the paintings.

Preserved amid the bromeliad-encrusted plateaus that tower over the thorn forests of northeast Brazil, the ancient rock art depicts fierce battles among tribesmen, orgiastic scenes of prehistoric revelry and hunters pursuing their game, spears in hand.

“These were stunning compositions, people and animals together, not just figures alone,” said Dr. Guidon, 81, remembering what first lured her and other archaeologists in the 1970s to this remote site where jaguars still prowl.

Hidden in the rock shelters where prehistoric humans once lived, the paintings number in the thousands. Some are thought to be more than 9,000 years old and perhaps even far more ancient. Painted in red ocher, they rank among the most revealing testaments anywhere in the Americas to what life was like millenniums before the European conquest began a mere five centuries ago.

Slide Show | Reassessing Human History in the Americas The discovery of stone tools proves that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago, researchers say.

But it is what excavators found when they started digging in the shadows of the rock art that is contributing to a pivotal re-evaluation of human history in the hemisphere.

Researchers here say they have unearthed stone tools proving that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago. Their discoveryadds to the growing body of research upending a prevailing belief of 20th-century archaeology in the United States known as the Clovis model, which holds that people first arrived in the Americas from Asia about 13,000 years ago.

“If they’re right, and there’s a great possibility that they are, that will change everything we know about the settlement of the Americas,” said Walter Neves, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of São Paulo whose own analysis of an11,000-year-old skull in Brazil implies that some ancient Americans resembled aboriginal Australians more than they did Asians.

Up and down the Americas, scholars say that the peopling of lands empty of humankind may have been far more complex than long believed. The radiocarbon dating of spear points found in the 1920s near Clovis, N.M., placed the arrival of big-game hunters across the Bering Strait about 13,000 years ago, long forming the basis of when humans were believed to have arrived in the Americas.

More recently, numerous findings have challenged that narrative. In Texas,archaeologists said in 2011 that they had found projectile points showing that hunter-gatherers had reached another site, known as Buttermilk Creek, as early as 15,500 years ago. Similarly, analysis of human DNA found at an Oregon cave determined that humans were there 14,000 years ago.

But it is in South America, thousands of miles from the New Mexico site where the Clovis spear points were discovered, where archaeologists are putting forward some of the most profound challenges to the Clovis-first theory.

Paleontologists in Uruguay published findings in November suggesting that humans hunted giant sloths there about 30,000 years ago. All the way in southern Chile, Tom D. Dillehay, an anthropologist at Vanderbilt University, has shown that humans lived at a coastal site called Monte Verde as early as 14,800 years ago.

And here in Brazil’s caatinga, a semi-arid region of mesas and canyons, European and Brazilian archaeologists building on decades of earlier excavations said last year that they had found artifacts at a rock shelter showing that humans had arrived in South America almost 10,000 years before Clovis hunters began appearing in North America.

“The Clovis paradigm is finally buried,” said Eric Boëda, the French archaeologist leading the excavations here.

Exposing the tension over competing claims about where and when humans first arrived in the Americas, some scholars in the dwindling Clovis-first camp in the United States quickly rejected the findings.

Gary Haynes, an archaeologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, argued that the stones found here were not tools made by humans, but instead could have become chipped and broken naturally, by rockfall. Stuart Fiedel, an archaeologist with the Louis Berger Group, an environmental consulting company, said that monkeys might have made the tools instead of humans.

“Monkeys, including large extinct forms, have been in South America for 35 million years,” Dr. Fiedel said. He added that the Clovis model was recently bolstered by new DNA analysis ancestrally connecting indigenous peoples in Central and South America to a boy from the Clovis culture whose 12,700-year-old remains were found in 1968 at a site in Montana.

Such dismissive positions have invited equally sharp responses from scholars like Dr. Dillehay, the American archaeologist who discovered Monte Verde. “Fiedel does not know what he is talking about,” he said, explaining that similarities existed between the stone tools found here and at the site across South America in Chile. “To say monkeys produced the tools is stupid.”

Having their findings disputed is nothing new for the archaeologists working at Serra da Capivara. Dr. Guidon, the Brazilian archaeologist who pioneered the excavations, asserted more than two decades ago that her team had found evidence in the form of charcoal from hearth fires that humans had lived here about 48,000 years ago.

While scholars in the United States generally viewed Dr. Guidon’s work with skepticism, she pressed on, obtaining the permission of Brazilian authorities to preserve the archaeological sites near the town of São Raimundo Nonato in a national park that now gets thousands of visitors a year despite its remote location in Piauí, one of Brazil’s poorest states.

Dr. Guidon remains defiant about her findings. At her home on the grounds of a museum she founded to focus on the discoveries in Serra da Capivara, she said she believed that humans had reached these plateaus even earlier, around 100,000 years ago, and might have come not overland from Asia but by boat from Africa.

Professor Boëda, who succeeded Dr. Guidon in leading the excavations, said that such early dates may have been possible but that more research was needed. His team is using thermoluminescence, a technique that measures the exposure of sediments to sunlight, to determine their age.

At the same time, discoveries elsewhere in Brazil are adding to the mystery of how the Americas were settled.

In what may be another blow to the Clovis model of humans’ coming from northeast Asia, molecular geneticists showed last year that the Botocudo indigenous people living in southeastern Brazil in the late 1800s shared gene sequencescommonly found among Pacific Islanders from Polynesia.

How could Polynesians have made it to Brazil? Or aboriginal Australians? Or, if the archaeologists here are correct, how could a population arrive in this hinterland long before Clovis hunters began appearing in the Americas? The array of new discoveries has scholars on a quest for answers.

Reflecting how researchers are increasingly accepting older dates of human migration to the Americas, Michael R. Waters, a geoarchaeologist at Texas A&M University’s Center for the Study of the First Americans, said that a “single migration” into the Americas about 15,000 years ago may have given rise to the Clovis people. But he added that if the results obtained here in Serra da Capivara are accurate, they will raise even more questions about how the Americas were settled.

“If so, then whoever lived there never passed on their genetic material to living populations,” said Dr. Waters, explaining how the genetic history of indigenous peoples links them to the Clovis child found in Montana. “We must think long and hard about these early sites and how they fit into the picture of the peopling of the Americas.”

LA CONTROVERSIA DE LA GRAN ESFINGE

picture of the great sphinx seen on diagonal

por

Dr. Robert M. Schoch

La Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto, durante mucho tiempo ha  pensado que tallado  por el faraón Kefrén IV dinastía ( Kefrén ) alrededor de 2500 AC ,Recientemente he determinado que , de hecho, la Gran Esfinge fue construida en etapas y he estimado que las primeras partes de la estatua ( el cuerpo central de la Esfinge ) se remontan al período de 7000 a 5000 antes de Cristo. Esta edad de la Esfinge está ahora bien – establecido. La evidencia de una esfinge anterior ha sido debidamente publicado en revistas pertinentes  , se refirió a las principales reuniones científicas sin ser falsificado  ] y hasta el momento la hipótesis de una esfinge más no ha sido convincentemente refutada.  Mi trabajo en la Gran Esfinge también ha recibido bastante atención en la prensa popular.  En este caso no es mi propósito reiterar la evidencia científica para una Esfinge de más edad ( el lector interesado se refirió a los artículos ya citados en las notas al pie , o pueden escribir a mí directamente en la Universidad de Boston) , sino más bien , en esta nota lo haré describir brevemente algunas de las tácticas interesantes utilizadas por algunos de mis críticos en el intento de desacreditar  mi trabajo en la Esfinge.

Para empezar, uno debe darse cuenta ( como no lo hice al principio) que la datación de la Gran Esfinge parece ser un tema muy delicado para la mayoría de los egiptólogos modernos. A pesar de que algunos de los primeros fundadores de la egiptología moderna (como Sir Flinders Petrie , Sir EA Wallis Budge, y Sir GC Maspero ) estaban abiertos a la idea de que la Esfinge puede ser anterior a la Dinastía IV pirámides que parece custodiar y antiguos de nuevos egipcios Unido a Romanos ( circa 1400 aC a 400 dC) en general pensaban que la Esfinge era más viejo que las pirámides , los egiptólogos modernos han galvanizado alrededor del dogma de que la Gran Esfinge fue construida por Kefrén , alrededor del año 2500 aC La base de esta atribución es puramente circunstancial , la pieza más fuerte de evidencia es la similitud de renombre entre la cara de la Esfinge y el rostro de Kefrén como se ve en otras estatuas . Sin embargo, experto forense Frank Domingo del Departamento de Policía de Nueva York ha demostrado definitivamente que el rostro de la Esfinge y la cara se ve en las estatuas de Kefrén firmados no son de la misma persona ( 4 ) y, de hecho , el rostro de la Esfinge , aparentemente no corresponde a la misma raza que la cara se ve en las estatuas de Kefrén ( la Esfinge tiene un ” africano” distintivo ” Nubian ” o ” aspecto negroide ” que no existe en la faz de Kefrén ) .

apocalypse-armageddon-storm-2517-1024x576

Aún así, la mayoría de los egiptólogos que viven sostienen que la Esfinge fue construida por , o al menos en la época de , Kefrén . El cuestionamiento de la edad de la Esfinge parece sacudir los cimientos de la egiptología convencional. Una esfinge mucho mayor pone en cuestión el sentido común relativo a cuándo y cómo se desarrolló la civilización en el valle del Nilo . Tal vez la corriente principal Egiptología se verá obligado a repensar su historia tradicional en cuanto a exactamente que los egipcios dinásticos eran y de dónde venían ( tanto geográfica como culturalmente ) . En general, los egiptólogos insistir en que los pueblos de Egipto no tenían la tecnología o la organización social para cortar el cuerpo de la base de la Esfinge en tiempos predinásticos . Una Esfinge mayor implica que existía una cultura altamente sofisticada a lo largo de las orillas del Nilo, en una época anterior que hasta ahora imaginado. Tal vez la noción de progreso cultural tendrá que ser reconsiderada.

Cuando se le dijo de mi trabajo en volver a salir con la Esfinge , egiptólogo Carol Redmount de la Universidad de California, Berkeley , fue citado y parafraseado diciendo (Los Angeles Times , 23 de octubre de 1991, p A18. ) : ” ‘ Simplemente no hay manera de que podría ser verdad [ que la parte más antigua de la Esfinge se remonta a 5000 aC o anterior ] . ‘ Los habitantes de esa región no habrían tenido la tecnología, las instituciones de gobierno o incluso la voluntad de construir una estructura de este tipo de miles de años antes del reinado de Kefrén , dijo ella ” . Y Redmount continuó , afirmando que ” esta conclusión [ de que la Esfinge es mucho más antigua que Kefrén ] va en contra de” todo lo que sabemos sobre el antiguo Egipto . ‘ ” Del mismo modo, Peter Lacovara , curador asistente del departamento egipcio del Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston , intentó despedir a mi trabajo diciendo (citado en The Boston Globe , 23 de octubre de 1991, p 8 . ) : ” Eso es ridículo … Miles de investigadores que trabajan desde hace cientos de años ” [ un poco exagerado en cuanto a cuántas personas han estudiado seriamente la Esfinge ] han estudiado este tema. . . ” la cronología está muy bien trabajado . No hay grandes sorpresas en el almacén para nosotros. ”

La comunidad Egyptological hizo poco para hacer frente a mis argumentos y datos . Una de las declaraciones más contundentes en su contra mis datos fue el Dr. K. Lal Gauri de : ” . Ni la evidencia del subsuelo ni la evidencia de la erosión indica nada en lo que se refiere a la edad Es que no es relevante” (SCIENCE , 14 de febrero de 1992, vol . 255 , p . 793 ) . Pero , por supuesto, tal afirmación carece de toda base objetiva . La razón de esta evidencia “no es relevante” a mis críticos es que no pueden aceptar las implicaciones de la evidencia. Ellos “saben” cuando la Esfinge fue construida , y no hay pruebas pueden derrocar a sus antiguas creencias . Ya que no pueden refutar las pruebas , se desestimó porque no eran pertinentes .

La táctica principal que se utiliza para contrarrestar mi herejía era tratar de despedirme como un charlatán y no-persona . Dr. Kathryn Bard ( Departamento de Arqueología de la Universidad de Boston ) implica fuertemente ( en BOSTON UNIVERSITY HOY , 11-17 noviembre de 1991, p. 6 ) , por asociación, que mi trabajo en la Esfinge no cae en la misma categoría que la de los ” charlatanes y buscadores de sensaciones “. ( como nota al margen , hasta el momento el Dr. Bard ha negado a debatir en persona sobre el tema a pesar de la invitación de una rama neutra de la Universidad de Boston para organizar dicha reunión ) Dr. Mark Lehner , de la Universidad de Chicago me acusó de practicar ” pseudociencia ” (New York Times , 9 de febrero de 1992, p. 16 ) . El Dr. Zahi Hawass, entonces Director de Antigüedades de la meseta de Giza y Sakkara , se refirió a la investigación como “alucinaciones americanos” (véase JA West , 1993 , serpiente ( edición revisada ), p. 229 ) . Para colmo de males , se publicó un artículo en el diario árabe “Al- Ahram ” (El Cairo , 24 de noviembre de 1991) en la que se habría declarado [ No leo árabe, así que sólo he leído una traducción del artículo; véase también PW Roberts, 1993 , Río en el desierto , p . 129 ] que el Dr. James Wiseman (Presidente del Departamento de Arqueología de la Universidad de Boston ) afirmó que no soy un miembro de la comunidad de la Universidad de Boston . Por supuesto , esto es un error – Estoy a tiempo completo , permanente ( permanente), miembro de la facultad en la Universidad de Boston. No soy , sin embargo, un miembro del Departamento de Arqueología de la Facultad de Artes Liberales de la Universidad de Boston, sino más bien un miembro de la División de Ciencias y Matemáticas en la Facultad de Estudios Generales (anteriormente el Colegio de Estudios Básicos ) Universidad de Boston. La Universidad de Boston se compone de unas quince escuelas y colegios , y más de 2.400 miembros de la facultad , tal vez la confusión con respecto a mi afiliación con la Universidad de Boston se debe al tamaño de la universidad y el número de diferentes unidades académicas que contiene.

Es evidente que la comunidad Egyptological estaba en pie de guerra , y la forma más fácil para deshacerse de mí ( o eso creían ) estaba con ataques ad hominem sobre mi persona . Una gran parte del problema parecía ser que yo era un “outsider ” ( mi doctorado en geología y geofísica de la Universidad de Yale ) , y extraoficialmente que incluso fue contada por un egiptólogo que había un montón de rocas para mí para estudiar distintos de los de la meseta de Giza , donde se encuentra la Esfinge .

sphinx

Fue la gran esfinge rodeado por un foso ?

Según Robert Temple, una teoría foso explica la erosión del agua de la Esfinge sin la hipótesis de que su origen se remonta a un período anterior de más precipitaciones que el presente. No voy a dirigirme a sus otras hipótesis, que no encuentro convincente , que la Esfinge fue el [ perro salvaje ] chacal Anubis y la cara que se vio en la Esfinge es la del Reino Medio faraón Amenemhat II , aunque tenga en cuenta la Esfinge original tiene ha vuelto a trabajar y re- talló la cabeza.

Mientras que en Egipto recientemente ( marzo de 2009) Miré a la Gran Esfinge con nuevos ojos . Resumiré media docena de puntos.

1 ) El Templo de la Esfinge (construido con bloques removidos de la Esfinge del recinto cuando el cuerpo de la Esfinge fue tallada inicialmente) y el Templo del Valle  al sur pesada erosión inducida por precipitación en sus bloques fundamentales. Estos templos de piedra caliza fueron posteriormente reformadas con los revestimientos de granito de Aswan durante el Imperio Antiguo . La teoría foso no puede explicar la naturaleza de la erosión muy antigua visto bajo el barniz de granito Imperio Antiguo.

2 ) Mucho más pesado erosión de la superficie se produce en el extremo occidental de la Esfinge del recinto , disminuyendo drásticamente hacia el extremo oriental . Esto se debe a las lluvias antiguas y la Paleohidrología de la zona. Esta erosión no es compatible con el agua acumulada en el recinto .

3 ) Los niveles más altos de los estratos miembro medio , se ve en la Esfinge del recinto en el extremo occidental , están más gravemente erosionadas , como se espera de la lluvia . Si la teoría foso fuera cierto, entonces los estratos más bajos en el extremo oriental de la Esfinge del recinto sería más fuertemente erosionado (causada por el agua que trajo a través de los canales del Nilo) , sino todo lo contrario se ve.

4 ) Los datos sísmicos que demuestran la profundidad de la erosión por debajo del piso de la Esfinge Enclosure, basado en mis análisis ( calibrado muy conservadora ) , da una edad mínima de por lo menos hace 7.000 años para que el cuerpo central de la Esfinge. El agua estancada en el recinto de la esfinge no aceleraría la profundidad de la erosión por debajo del piso de la caja.

5 ) Las fisuras verticales observados en las paredes de la Esfinge recinto muestran signos diagnósticos de haber sido formada por la precipitación y el escurrimiento del agua. Ellos no muestran características que son de diagnóstico o incluso sugerente de haber sido formado por el dragado artificial de la esfinge del recinto , como Robert Temple sugiere .

6 ) Suponiendo que el argumento de que la Esfinge se sentó en una piscina, o bien el nivel del agua alrededor de la Esfinge fue el mismo que el de la tabla de agua circundante, o las paredes y el suelo de la piscina estaban selladas y estancas ( y las paredes artificiales , como por ejemplo en el extremo oriental , eran lo suficientemente fuertes como para soportar la presión del agua ) . ( Tenga en cuenta que el extremo occidental actual de la Esfinge del recinto está en una elevación mucho más alta que el extremo oriental [ véase la figura en la página 534 de El misterio de la esfinge por Robert Temple con Olivia Temple, Inner Traditions , 2009 ] , pero clara erosión del agua es se muestra en las elevaciones más altas en el extremo occidental . Dado que el agua busca su propio nivel , si el agua en una supuesta fosa llegó a la altura del extremo occidental de la Esfinge Enclosure, a continuación, el extremo oriental , así como las paredes a lo largo del norte y lados sur deben haber sido construido a una altura comparable como el extremo occidental . Esto es independiente de si la pared oriental del recinto [= muro occidental del Templo de la Esfinge ] tiene una base de roca natural o fue enteramente compuesto de corte y se coloca la piedra. ) Sabemos que el nivel freático antiguo era muy por debajo del nivel del suelo de la esfinge del recinto (o de lo contrario el Templo de la Esfinge se hubiera ahogado) . La Esfinge Enclosure, si simplemente talladas en la roca de fondo ( como todo indica ) no se habría celebrado una piscina profunda de agua estancada . El lecho de roca en el recinto es muy criticado, y se caracteriza por una morfología cárstica que gotear como un colador . Necesitaría el recinto para ser totalmente sellado ( con mortero o cemento , tal vez) , y no hay evidencia de tal sellado . Si el recinto había sido sellado de tal manera , esto no sería compatible con la teoría de dragado para las fisuras verticales . Además, cámaras y túneles bajo la Esfinge se habrían inundado desde arriba si la Esfinge había estado sentado en un charco de agua, a menos que la Esfinge recinto había sido estanco .

En pocas palabras , la teoría de la fosa no se sostiene .

an artist's rendering of water running down the walls of the sphinx enclosurean artist's rendering of water versus wind erosion

representación de un artista del agua corriendo por las paredes de la representación de la esfinge enclosurean del artista de agua contra la erosión eólica

Es cierto que algunos de mis primeros problemas con la comunidad Egyptological parecen tener su origen en el hecho de que me presentaron , a través de un colega (Dr. Robert Eddy, a la vez que un miembro de la facultad en mi compañero de la universidad ) , al problema de la Esfinge por el notorio John Anthony West . West tiene una reputación como un egiptólogo heterodoxo y autodidacta que tiene poco respeto por la creación Egyptological y, de hecho , sostiene que gran parte de la interpretación estándar de la civilización egipcia es fundamentalmente errónea . West también es visto por algunas personas como una ” Nueva Era “, [5] y , me atrevería a decir , un chiflado general y charlatán (he llegado a conocer a Occidente bien desde que lo conocí en 1989 , y él no es ni ) . Desafortunadamente Occidente ha utilizado el término ” Atlantis” un poco demasiado a menudo al proponer algunas de sus ideas y, en mi opinión, él tiene sobre- estima la edad de la Gran Esfinge ( que ha sugerido que puede regresar a diez o quince mil años antes de Cristo ) . No tuve más remedio involucré en toda la controversia como un favor a un par de miembros de la facultad compañeros . Oí West , pero no pensé que había muchas posibilidades que él estaba en lo cierto al sugerir que la Esfinge era mayor que su atribución estándar – hasta que llegué a Egipto. Entonces , para mi sorpresa , descubrí que West podría ser en realidad a algo, incluso si él consiguió algunos detalles mal (pero West no tiene entrenamiento formal como geólogo ) .

¿Y qué si West es autor de un libro sobre astrología [ 6] y propugna otras opiniones poco ortodoxas ? Esto no tiene más que ver con los datos concretos relacionados con la edad de la Gran Esfinge que lo hace el color de mis ojos , o la política del Islam – o lo hace ? En el mundo apretado, virtualmente cerrado de la egiptología pronto aprendí lo contrario. Parecía que todo estaba cargada política y psicológicamente . Egiptólogos me parecen demasiado sensibles acerca de la Nueva Era , los psíquicos , los fanáticos religiosos, creyentes en “pirámide del poder “, y así sucesivamente , tal vez con razón, cuando se tiene todo tipo de reclamaciones ” extrañas ” en cuanto al significado y el propósito de las pirámides , etc [ 7 ], incluida la afirmación de que los dos grandes pirámides de Giza estaban aterrizando balizas para un puerto espacial que fue construido en la península de Sinaí en ca. 10.500 aC [ 8], y que la Esfinge tiene alguna relación especial con la ” cara de Marte ” reputado [ 9 ] .

De hecho, incluso algunos eruditos bien atrincheradas dentro del establecimiento Egyptological tienen conexiones de la Nueva Era. Es de conocimiento común [ 10 ] que el interés del Dr. Mark Lehner en el antiguo Egipto y la Esfinge se originó debido a su conexión con la Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación (ARE , la Fundación Edgar Cayce ) . Al parecer parte de la educación universitaria de Lehner fue subvencionado por la ARE y A.R.E. miembros ; Lehner iba a ser de la ARE ” hombre de El Cairo. ” Lehner escribió un libro [ 11 ] , hace muchos años , titulado The Heritage egipcia en la que ] se analizan las lecturas psíquicas de Edgar Cayce que describen una sociedad muy antigua que existía en Egipto, que consta de los sobrevivientes de la civilización perdida de la Atlántida. Me han dicho que el libro de Lehner es un “clásico” en su campo entre los devotos . Según Edgar Cayce, tal como fue revisado por Lehner, la Esfinge y las pirámides fueron construidas ca. 10.500 aC y debajo o cerca de la Esfinge fue sepultado un Salón de los Registros que contiene los registros de la Atlántida. Curiosamente , no sólo Lehner tiene ex A.R.E. conexiones . El Dr. Zahi Hawass también fue apoyado en parte y frecuentado por miembros de la ARE Yo personalmente no me pongo cualquier acción en las lecturas psíquicas , las historias de la Atlántida , o similares , pero de Lehner (y de Hawass , para el caso) las asociaciones anteriores con la ARE No siempre me molesta cuando no incidan desfavorablemente en su ( su ) estudios actuales . De hecho , la A.R.E. fondos y publica mucha investigación sólida sobre el antiguo Egipto [ 12 ] , a pesar de que gran parte de la investigación que financian o publicar contradice las lecturas de Cayce .

Dada Lehner y de A.R.E. de Hawass / Conexiones “Nueva Era” , en particular , me parece irónico que ellos y otros egiptólogos me han acusado de ser un pseudocientífico que sea cómplice supone New Age grazna como West , ( El Misterio de la Esfinge. ) Tal vez es debido a su antiguas conexiones que son tan sensibles a estas cuestiones. Yo , por otro lado, ya que nunca había tenido este tipo de conexiones , en primer lugar , preocupa poco acerca de dónde la inspiración para las hipótesis científicas y análisis venido. En el caso de la edad de la Esfinge , sólo porque Occidente podría contener algunos puntos de vista no convencionales , eso no quiere decir que su propuesta (basada en la obra de Schwaller de Lubicz [ 13 ] ) – que la Esfinge es más antigua que su atribución tradicional – cannot ser utilizado heurísticamente [ 14 ] . Análisis preliminar de Occidente en la edad de la Esfinge me inició en una investigación científica muy seria, sin tonterías .

Aquí yo tengo también en cuenta que la ideología , la teología , y el nacionalismo a menudo influir en la manera en que los datos arqueológicos se interpreta [ 15 ] . tener en cuenta la posibilidad de que mi Redating de la Esfinge puede ser repugnante para algunas personas , principalmente sobre la base de la ideología política y el dogma religioso. Modernos árabes musulmanes a veces puede ser abiertamente hostil hacia la antigua cultura egipcia – especialmente si se considera como relativamente temprano y sofisticado. Cuando me interesé por primera vez en la datación de la esfinge de un amigo que había vivido en Egipto durante varios años me advirtió que podría encontrarse con tal hostilidad si me atreviera a sugerir que la Esfinge podría ser incluso más antigua que ya creían . Al principio no le creí , pero ahora me inclino a pensar que puede haber sido correcta. Muchos de los militantes islámicos y fundamentalistas que actualmente están tratando de tomar el gobierno de Egipto quieren destruir todas las estatuas y monumentos del antiguo Egipto. Islam Fundamental prohíbe el arte figurativo , y toda la civilización que es anterior al profeta Mahoma es considerada idólatra. Sugerir que las porciones de la Esfinge son incluso más antiguos que se pensaba tradicionalmente , lo que implica una sociedad sofisticada que existía incluso antes en el tiempo , sólo se frota sal en las llagas abiertas de fundamentalistas que deben hacer frente (al menos hasta que puedan destruirlos ) los magníficos restos de la cultura faraónica .

En general , he encontrado que la egiptología es una fascinante , pero emocionalmente cargada, disciplina. Mi formación como científico no me preparó completamente para las personalidades fuertes que iba a enfrentar en las filas de Egyptophiles . Desde que se convirtió involucrados en la investigación sobre la edad de la Esfinge he descubierto que no soy el único científico que ha tenido una menos que positiva experiencia inicial cuando se trata de los egiptólogos . Germer [ 16 ] ha señalado astutamente que ” En el pasado , la cooperación entre las ciencias naturales y de la egiptología necesariamente no ha tenido éxito en todos los casos El egiptólogo es inicialmente sospechoso ; . Él muchas veces rechaza los resultados de las manos, y no está dispuesto a trabajar con científicos . datos cree que puede hacerlo mejor con su propia metodología Sólo cuando se llega a los límites de su enfoque – . trabajar con textos antiguos o material arqueológico – y que le gustaría “probar” una teoría particular, citando “objetiva” científica datos que hace el turno egiptólogo a las ciencias naturales . Si hay diferentes resultados científicos obtenidos con el mismo material , el egiptólogo menudo no está en condiciones de determinar que es lo más probable. Muchas veces es una cuestión de elegir esos datos “científicos” que mejor se adapte a una teoría particular , sin realmente saber si son fiables o no. ”

Aquí no me refiero a postular una crítica generalizada contra todos los egiptólogos . Más bien, creo que es importante señalar que las metodologías tradicionales utilizadas por muchos egiptólogos a menudo difieren de manera fundamental de los enfoques y metodologías utilizadas por los profesionales en las ciencias naturales. En la Asociación Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia debate sobre la edad de la Esfinge , por ejemplo , me hice muy consciente de que mi adversario, Dr. Lehner, puede ser un egiptólogo muy brillante y competente, pero no lo hace ” pensar como un científico . ” En retrospectiva, me doy cuenta de que soy tal vez la culpa de la falta de comunicación entre Lehner y yo mismo en la reunión de la AAAS febrero 1992 para que yo le estaba dirigiendo incorrectamente como un colega científico , que no lo es. Lehner es un egiptólogo y se acerca a los problemas y los datos de ese sesgo. Tal vez es hora de inyectar un poco más de la ciencia en la egiptología y ver qué pasa . Podríamos presenciar algunas novedades interesantes .

NOTAS:

1 . RM Schoch , 1992 , ” Re-dating the Great Sphinx of Giza, ” KMT , un diario moderno del antiguo Egipto 03:02 (verano 1992 ) , 52-59 , 66-70 ( los comentarios editoriales y pies de figuras , que no se ve por Schoch antes de publicación, son por Dennis C. Forbes , Director Editorial, KMT – tenga en cuenta que en la página 54 en la parte trasera de la Esfinge está en el lado izquierdo de la fotografía , no en el lado derecho como erróneamente se indica en el título) ; TL Dobecki . y RM Schoch , 1992 , ” Investigaciones sísmicas en las inmediaciones de la Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto, ” Geoarqueología : un Journal7 Internacional : 6 ( diciembre de 1992) , 527-544 (por desgracia, un error involuntario se produce en la primera página de este artículo : mal se dice de pasada que Khufu ” reinó durante el final del vigésimo sexto milenio antes de Cristo “, cuando , por supuesto, que reinó durante el final del vigésimo sexto siglo , o milenio tercero medio, BC ) .

2 . RM Schoch y JA West , 1991 , Redating la Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto. Sociedad Geológica de América abstrae con los programas [ de la reunión anual , celebrada en San Diego , Octubre 1991 ] , v 23 , no. 5 , p . A253 ; RM Schoch , 1992 , ¿Qué edad es la Esfinge, resúmenes para la Reunión Anual 1992 de la Asociación Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia , Chicago [ febrero 1992 ] , p ? . 202 . Este último trabajo fue una contribución invitado a un simposio convocado especialmente por la AAAS para discutir mi Redating de la Gran Esfinge .

3 . Durante el debate de 1992 AAAS en la era de la Gran Esfinge de mis adversarios más acérrimos , los Dres . Marcos Lehner y K. Lal Gauri , no pudieron rebatir con éxito mi fecha más antigua para la Gran Esfinge . El debate AAAS Sphinx está bien descrito por Paul William Roberts en su libro río en el desierto : Viajes modernos en el Antiguo Egipto ( 1993 , Random House, Nueva York , pp 127-135 ), este debate también fue la base de un artículo por Paul William Roberts titulado ” enigma de la Esfinge “, que apareció en la edición de marzo 1993 de la revista canadiense SATURDAY NIGHT (pp. 22-24, 26 , 28 , 73) . Véase la discusión también relacionado de este tema en John Anthony West , 1993 , serpiente celeste : La Alta Sabiduría del Antiguo Egipto ( edición revisada ) , de Quest Books (The Theosophical Publishing House), Wheaton, IL , pp 225-232 . Escribí un artículo de divulgación para la revista OMNI en mi Redating de la Gran Esfinge ( RM Schoch , 1992 , ” A Riddle moderna de la Esfinge , ” OMNI 14:11 [ agosto 1992 ] , 46-48, 68-69 ) . Los editores de OMNI se dieron cuenta de lo controvertido que fue el tema , por lo que invitó a mis críticos , en forma de Lehner y Gauri , para escribir una refutación a mi trabajo. Al principio con entusiasmo aceptaron escribir una pieza , pero después de meses de retraso , se negaron. OMNI luego publicó un breve después de que yo había escrito reafirmando mi esquema Redating de la Gran Esfinge , y los editores OMNI comentó que Lehner y Gauri ” bajaron ” su invitación a comentar mi trabajo (véase RM Schoch , 1993 , Reconsiderando la Esfinge. OMNI , v 15, no. 6 [Abril de 1993] , p.31 ) . Aunque la mayoría de los egiptólogos han estado en desacuerdo con violencia , al menos inicialmente , con mis conclusiones respecto a la antigüedad de la Gran Esfinge , ha habido excepciones . Por ejemplo, un grupo de científicos de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio , utilizando diferentes criterios y con total independencia de nuestro trabajo , llegó a conclusiones similares en relación con la edad de la Gran Esfinge – a saber, que la Esfinge es anterior a la época de Kefrén ( ver Yoshimura , S. , T. Nakagawa, y S. Tonouchi , 1988 , no Destructivos Pirámide Investigaciones ( 2 ) , Estudios de Cultura egipcio N º 8 , de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio ; Yoshimura , S., S. Tonouchi y T. Nakagawa, 1987 , el primer Simposio Internacional sobre la Aplicación de la tecnología moderna para Exploraciones arqueológicas en la Necrópolis de Giza : la sustancia de la expresión, de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio ; Yoshimura , S., S. Tonouchi , T. Nakagawa, y K. Seki, 1987 , Investigación Pirámide no Destructivos ( 1 ) – Por Electromagnetic Wave Método , Estudios de Cultura egipcio N º 6 , de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio) .

4 . Véase especialmente JA West , ” Civilización repensado , ” Cond Nast Traveler 28:2 ( febrero de 1993) , 100-105 , 168-171 , 175-177 . West es la primera persona que me metió en Redating la Gran Esfinge , en este artículo se sucinta cuenta la historia humana detrás de la investigación de la esfinge . Este artículo también incluye una barra lateral y dos fotografías que he contribuido (p. 103 ) , el análisis del experto forense Frank Domingo y la reconstrucción de la cara de la Esfinge ( p. 104 ), y varios comentarios hechos por los críticos de la hipótesis Redating Esfinge. Para una muestra de la publicidad en torno a mi investigación Esfinge, ver GSA Today ( vol. 2 , núm. 1 . , P . 1-2 , enero de 1992) y los artículos impresos en THE NEW YORK TIMES 24 de octubre 1991 , THE WASHINGTON POST 11 de noviembre 1991 , NEWSDAY [New York ] 25 de octubre de 1991 EL INDEPENDIENTE [London ] 14 de octubre de 1991 EE.UU. hoy el 10 de octubre de 1991, The Boston Globe 23 de octubre 1991 , el San Diego Union 23 de octubre 1991 , Los Angeles Times 23 de octubre 1991 , LA CRÓNICA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR 13 de noviembre 1991 , 11 de diciembre de 1991, y el 15 de enero de 1992, el egipcio GACETA 28 de octubre 1991 , VANCOUVER dom 28 octubre de 1991, el International Herald Tribune 12 de noviembre 1991 , y el Houston Chronicle 23 de octubre 1991 , The New York Times 09 de febrero 1992 , el Washington Post 17 ​​de febrero 1992 , el San Francisco Chronicle 08 de febrero 1992 , el Daily Telegraph ( Londres) 10 de febrero 1992 , Science 14 febrero de 1992, New Scientist 15 de febrero 1992 , el Houston Chronicle 12 de febrero 1992 , y el Chicago Tribune 24 febrero de 1992. Para los artículos relacionados, ver THE NEW YORK TIMES 27 de junio 1992 y el 18 de julio de 1992 LA APLICACIÓN DE LA LEY DE NOTICIAS 15 de junio 1992 , The Times ( Londres) 03 de julio 1992 , SKY Magazine ( Delta Airlines ) agosto de 1992, Fortean Times ( Número 64 ) Agosto / septiembre de 1992, INSIGHT en las noticias 10 de agosto 1992 , pp 15-16; un artículo en MUNDO 21 ( edición de septiembre de 1992, pp 130-137 ), y la sección Home Life of lA PROVIDENCE JOURNAL Domingo 28 de febrero 1993 . Esta es sólo una lista parcial ; supuestamente la historia fue cubierta o reproducirse en cientos de periódicos de todo el mundo, y también mencionó en una serie de programas de radio y televisión.

I y / o el Oeste fueron entrevistados para una serie de programas de radio y televisión . Me fue presentado en ” Informe sobre la Ciencia , una presentación de video : Los científicos Tackle Últimas Enigma de la Esfinge – ¿Cuántos años tiene ? ” producido por el Instituto Americano de Física , julio de 1992 (longitud aproximadamente 2 minutos , más 5 minutos de comentarios adicionales ) . Este video fue transmitido a través de varios canales de televisión en mayo y junio de 1992 . West y yo participamos en una entrevista de televisión en vivo, con Scott Simon , en relación con la edad de la Gran Esfinge el sábado de la NBC Today Show de difusión de la Ciudad de Nueva York, 22 de agosto de 1992. También estuve de acuerdo en ser entrevistado por la Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación / La Fundación Edgar Cayce sobre la edad de la Esfinge ; para la versión publicada de esta entrevista vea ” La Esfinge : Mayor de tiempo? ” , Venture Inward , enero / febrero 1992 , pp 14-17 , 48-49 .

representación de un artista de la esfinge como representación de un artista lionan masculina de la esfinge como un león macho con la lluvia que cae sobre él

an artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lionan artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lion with rain falling on him

5 . C. Hedges, “Egipto no mantiene Terror Para aquellos en el hechizo de la Esfinge, ” THE NEW YORK TIMES 13 de abril 1993 .

6 . J. A. West , 1991 , El Caso de la Astrología . Vikingo Arkana , Londres y Nueva York.

7 . P. Tompkins, 1978 , Secretos de la Gran Pirámide. Harper and Row, New York .

8 . Z. Sitchin , 1986 , ” falsificación ” en la Gran Pirámide . Venture Inward [la revista de la Asociación para la Investigación y la Ilustración y la Fundación Edgar Cayce ] , noviembre / diciembre 1986, pp 33-37 .

9 . RC Hoagland , 1992 Los monumentos de Marte : una ciudad al borde de la eternidad , North Atlantic Books , Berkeley .

10 . AR Smith, 1988 , Hugh Lynn Cayce : los negocios de mi Padre. La compañía que pone , Publishers, Norfolk / Virginia Beach.

11 . M. Lehner, 1974 [ 14a impresión, 1991 ] , La herencia egipcia , con base en las lecturas de Edgar Cayce . Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación Press, Virginia Beach, VA .

12 . EE Cayce , G. Cayce Schwartzer , y la DG Richards, 1988 , Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited . Harper and Row, San Francisco.

13 . RA Schwaller de Lubicz , 1982 [ traducido por A. y G. VANDENBROECK ] , Ciencia Sagrada : El rey de la teocracia faraónica . Inner Traditions International, de Nueva York.

14 . DG Richards, 1988 , anomalías arqueológicas en las Bahamas. J. Sci. . Exploración, 2:181 – 201; WD Gray, 1991 , Pensar críticamente acerca de las ideas de la Nueva Era . Wadsworth Publishing Company , Belmont , California.

15 . NA Silberman , 1989 , Entre el Pasado y Presente : Arqueología, ideología y nacionalismo en el Medio Oriente moderno . Henry Holt and Company, de Nueva York; C. Hedges, ” la ira de los musulmanes « Sin perdonó a las momias , “THE NEW YORK TIMES 23 de julio 1993 .

16 . R. Germer , 1986 , problemas de la ciencia en la egiptología , en la ciencia en Egiptología (RA David , ed. ), Manchester University Press , Manchester , pp 521-525 ( cita del p. 521 ) .

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.html

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.htm