10 Remarkable Advanced Ancient Technologies Ahead Of Their Times

 

 

 Could Ancient Peruvians Soften Stone?

perustones

peru stones
Sacsayhuamán is a citadel on the northern outskirts of the city of Cusco, Peru, the historic capital of the Inca Empire.

Archaeologists and other scientists have been scratching their heads trying to figure out how remarkable ancient Peruvian structures like Sacsayhuamán were constructed.

This marvelous structure consists of gigantic stones so heavy that our modern machinery can hardly move and put in place.

Does the key to the puzzle lie in a certain very specific plant that gave the ancient Peruvians possibility to soften stone or is the answer to the mystery access to advanced ancient technology that could melt stone?

According to researchers Jan Peter de Jong , Christopher Jordan Jesus Gamarra, the granite walls in Cuzco show evidence of being heated to a very high degree and vitrified- the outside surface becoming glassy and very smooth.

Based on this observation, Jong, Jordan and Gamarra draw the conclusion that “some sort of high tech device was used to melt stone blocks which were then placed and allowed to cool next to hard, jigsaw-polygonal blocks that were already in place.

Researchers Jong and Jordan propose that several ancient civilizations world-wide were familiar with the high-tech melting of stone technology. They also say that “the stones on some of the ancient streets in Cuzco have been vitrified by some high temperature to give them their characteristic glassy texture. Read more

2. Sound Manipulation

halsaflieni

Hal Saflieni hypogeum
Hal Saflieni hypogeum was not a “normal, collective prehistoric rock-cut tomb”.

The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni inMalta has special significance due to its remarkable acoustic properties. The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni is an underground cave system covering around 500m² on 3 levels, with various inter-connecting corridors and passageways that lead to a number of small chambers, built between 3000-2500BC. The cave system was re-discovered in 1902 and since then there has been particular interest in one of the rooms, named the “Oracle Chamber”. With its ceilings intact, the underground structure holds secrets of a strange play of sound in the stone rooms and halls; a “forgotten” technology which operates on the human emotional sphere. The space is said to amplify voices dramatically, with certain frequencies resonating enough to be felt through the body.

The Hal Saflieni hypogeum has a dark history. Researchers have discovered the hypogeum of Hal Saflieni contained the bodies of over 7,000 people, a ‘speaking chamber’, trilithons, lintelled-doorways, a large cistern and a ‘holy of holies’ surrounded by ’embryonic’ chambers. What experiments were conducted in this bizarre and mysterious place? Read more

3. The Lycurgus Cup: Fascinating Artifact That Reveals Prehistoric Knowledge Of Nanotechnology

lycurguscup

lycurgus cup
The Lycurgus cup.

This amazing artifact clearly shows that our ancestors were far ahead of their time. In fact they were so advanced that they may even have been inventors of what we today call nanotechnology.

This extraordinary cup is the only surviving complete example made from dichroic glass, which changes colour when held up to the light. When light is shone through the body of the cup it turns from opaque green to a glowing translucent red. The glass contains tiny amounts of colloidal gold and silver, which give it these unusual optical properties. Read more

Another good example revealing our ancestors were familiar with nanotechnology are the strange microscopically small nanospirals within material that had to be at least 100,000 years old have been detected in several places, during a routine investigation of mineral deposits in the Ural Mountains in 1992.

The origin of these extraordinary but strange artifacts that the human eye can barely see – is still not explained. Read more

4. Batteries In The Ancient World

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bagdad battery
Ancient Baghdad batteries.

A small, undecorated artifact with rather plain appearance, is believed by some scientists to be an example of a prehistoric, electrical power source. It’s the so-called Baghdad Battery, also known as the Parthian Battery.

The artifact – thought to be a 2,000-year-old electric battery – was found in 1936 by railroad workers in the area of Tel Khujut Rabu, south of Baghdad.

Most sources date the batteries to around 200 BC, but the first known electric battery – the Voltaic pile – was not invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta until 1799.

The bottoms of these mysterious cylinders were capped with copper discs and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. Another insulating layer of bitumen sealed the tops of the pots and held in place iron rods suspended into the center of the copper cylinders.

The rods showed a strong evidence of having been corroded by an acid solution that evaporated long ago. Read more

5. Incredible Ancient Metallurgical Wonders

ironpillarindia

 

Iron pillar in India
The column in India – made up of 98% wrought iron of impure quality – not in any way welded together – seems to have been forged as a single, gigantic piece of iron.

The Antediluvians had technologies that matched our own; there are also serious indications that in certain areas they even possessed extraordinary knowledge, which has only hardly been nudged by our present-day science.

Highly advanced hardening techniques of the ancients as well as ancient castings of large pieces were widespread in antiquity. Our ancestors were in possession of an extremely sophisticated scientific knowledge of metalworking from an earlier civilization and evidence of this knowledge was found in different parts of the world.

China with a long history in metallurgy, was the earliest civilization that manufactured cast iron and some of the ancient Chinese feats of casting iron are so impressive as to be almost unbelievable.

Ancient Indians, for example, produced iron capable of withstanding corrosion, most likely due to the high phosphorus content of the iron produced during those times.

A column of cast iron 23 feet (7 meters) high, weighing approximately 6 tons with diameter of 16.4 inches stands in the courtyard of Kutb Minar in Delhi, India.

An inscription in the Sanskrit language informs that the column was originally erected in the temple of Muttra and capped with Garuda – “Messenger of the Gods” – an image of the bird incarnation of the god Vishnu, the Indian god known as “The Preserver”. Read more

6. Proof Of Superior Ancient Drilling Holes Technology – Found In All Four Corners Of The World

ancientdrillingholestech

ancient drilling hole technology
All kind of stones (even the hardest ones) were drilled for architectural, ritualistic or symbolic functions.

This incredible technology was widespread in antiquity and evidence of it can be found in all corners of the world. Prehistoric builders used stones, the toughest surfacing material found on Earth to create perfectly round holes.

This impressive cutting-holes-in-stone technique reveals our ancestors were familiar with an extremely advanced technology we have long been unable to use.

Large-sized holes found in ancient stone demanded engineering skills and proper cutting equipment. Read more

7. Legendary Viking Crystal Sunstones Helped Vikings To Navigate

crystalstones

Viking crystal stone
In Viking times the magical Sun Stone showed sailors road when the sun went down.

The Norse sagas mention a mysterious “sunstone” – a magical stone which showed sailors road when the sun disappeared.

Now researchers say the stone is real and it’s a special crystal. One of the reasons why the existences of sunstones have long been disputed is because they are contained in the saga of Saint Olaf, a tale with many magical elements.

However, this has changed and now. Sunstones can no longer be considered just a myth. Archaeologists have discovered a special crystal that suggests legendary Viking sunstones did exists in reality. Read more

8. Ancient Sophisticated Mercury-Based Gilding That We Still Can’t Reach

electroplatingartifact

ancient electroplating artifact
Sometimes, the technology was used to apply real gold and silver. It also was used fraudulently, to make cheap metal statues that look like solid gold or silver.

Ancients were in possession of very sophisticated knowledge. Ancient gold and silversmiths used mercury, which was produced more than 8,000 years ago in Turkey. Mercury was used for gilding (domes, interiors of cathedrals, religious figures and more) in many parts of the ancient world.

Many of the ancients’ techniques are still unknown. They were so skilled that some of the quality they achieved has still not been matched.

In ancient times, these sophisticated methods were used to produce and decorate different types of artefacts, such as jewels, statues, amulets, and commonly-used objects. Gilders performed these processes not only to decorate objects but also to simulate the appearance of gold or silver, sometimes fraudulently. From a technological point of view, the aim of these workmen over 2000 years ago was to make the precious metal coatings as thin and adherent as possible. This was in order to save expensive metals and to improve the resistance to the wear caused by continued use and circulation.

Recent findings confirm the high level of competence reached by the ancient artists and craftsmen and stresses an artistic quality of the objects they produced could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modern ones. Read more

9. Ancient Computer: Enigmatic Antikythera Mechanism Still Full Of Secrets

antikythera001

antikythera
Researchers have long debated where the device was built, and by whom.

In 1900, an amazing encrusted bronze object of undetermined use was found on the small island of Antikythera, 25 miles northwest of Crete. One of the curious scientists decided to clean it and found that it was a complex instrument with cog-wheels fitting one into another.

Finely graduated circles and inscriptions marked on the instrument in ancient Greek were apparently related to its function. Based on the cargo, it was dated to about the 1st century BC.

It seemed to be a sort of astronomical clock without pendulum but no Greek or Roman writer has ever described such an ancient computer, though many other wonders of antiquity are mentioned. Read more

10. Highly Advanced Robots In Ancient China

robotschina

robots in ancient china
There are many examples of robots that were created in ancient China.

In ancient China we come across a number of highly advanced robots that could sing, dance, act like servants and perform many other surprising tasks.

Some of these remarkable robots are even said to have possessed life-like organs such as bones, muscles, joints, skin and hair.

It’s a quite remarkable considering it is only recently our modern civilization has started to develop human-like robots.

There is no doubt mechanical engineering in ancient China reached a very high level.

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BREAKING: Remains of Buddha Found? 2,500-Year-Old Cremated Bones with Revealing Inscription Unearthed in China

Remains-of-Buddha-Found

 

In what could be an enormously significant finding for Buddhists around the world, archaeologists in China have unearthed an ancient ceramic box containing cremated human remains, which carries an inscription saying they belong to Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama.

Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha or “Enlightened One,” is probably one of the most influential individuals to come out of India through the founding of Buddhism.  He is believed to have lived and taught mostly in the eastern part of ancient India sometime between the 6th and 4th centuries BC.  According to the Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Pali canon, at the age of 80, the Buddha announced that he would soon reach Parinirvana, or the final deathless state, and abandon his earthly body.

After his death, Buddha’s cremation relics are said to have been divided amongst 8 royal families and his disciples. Legends say that, centuries later, they were enshrined by King Ashoka into 84,000 stupas.  Many of the remains were supposedly taken to other countries.

The Death of the Buddha, a hanging scroll painting at the British Museum. Credit: Trustees of the British Museum

The Death of the Buddha, a hanging scroll painting at the British Museum. Credit: Trustees of the British Museum

Gathering of the Buddha

Around 1,000 years ago, two monks named Yunjiang and Zhiming, spent two decades gathering together the remains of the Buddha, which had been distributed around India and other countries.

Live Science reports that the newly-discovered box, which was unearthed in Jingchuan County, China, came with an inscription dated to June 22, 1013. It states

 

The monks Yunjiang and Zhiming of the Lotus School, who belonged to the Mañjuśrī Temple of the Longxing Monastery in Jingzhou Prefecture, gathered more than 2,000 pieces of śarīra [cremated remains of the Buddha], as well as the Buddha’s teeth and bones, and buried them in the Mañjuśrī Hall of this temple.
In order to promote Buddhism, they wanted to collect śarīra [Buddhist relics]. To reach this goal, both of them practiced the instruction of Buddhism during every moment of their lives for more than 20 years. Sometimes they received the śarīra from others’ donations; sometimes they found them by chance; sometimes they bought them from other places; and sometimes others gave them the śarīra to demonstrate their wholeheartedness.”
 

The ceramic box containing human remains believed to belong to Buddha. Credit: Chinese Cultural Relics

The ceramic box containing human remains believed to belong to Buddha. Credit: Chinese Cultural Relics

According to Live Science, archaeologists identified cremated human remains inside the ancient ceramic box, and while it is impossible to say with certainty whether they are indeed the remains of Siddhārtha Gautama, the 1,000-year-old inscription certainly suggests this is the case.

 

The discovery was first made back in December 2012 while a group of villagers were repairing roads. After years of archaeological excavations at the site, the historically significant finding was reported in Chinese in 2016. Now, the discovery has reached the English-speaking world for the first time in the journal Chinese Cultural Relics.

Top image: A statue of Buddha (CC by SA 4.0)

 

ANCIENT HISTORY Impossible chronology: History is wrong

 

Impossible chronology

Archaeologists have made it possible willingly or unwillingly, to question history as we know it thanks to the numerous discoveries that have been made in the past.

Strangely, there are quite a few ancient texts that speak of times where Giants, heroes, gods and demigods ruled over Earth. These mysterious beings, considered by researchers as myths, ruled on planet Earth for hundreds and even thousands of years, and their legacy was written down in ancient texts such as the Sumerian King list, the Turin Papyrus, the Palermo stone, and numerous thinkers and researchers such as Eusebio of Casarea and George Syncellus have studied these so-called “myths” coming to interesting conclusions that challenge mainstream history.

According to Eusebius of Caesarea, who was a Roman historian, exegete, and Christian polemicist of Greek descent, a dynasty of gods ruled Egypt for 13.9 thousand years: the first was god Vulcan, the god who discovered fire, after him Sosis of the Sun, Isis and Osiris of Saturn, Typhoon brother of Osiris, and Horus the son of Isis and Osiris. they were followed by a dynasty of heroes and demigods who ruled for 11,025 years. This makes it a total of 24.925 years of reign. Approximately around 3000 BC, the first “human” pharaoh would take rule as Egyptian pharaoh.

According to George Syncellus six dynasties of gods reigned for 11,985 years. The god of fire Hephaestus, Helios or Sol, Agatodemon, Cronus or Saturn, Osiris and Isis and Osiris’ brother Typhon. The first 9 demigods are Horus (son of Isis and Osiris), Ares, Anubis, Heracles, Apollo, Amon Titoes, SOSUS, and Zeus, and these 9 demigods covered a period of about 2645 years kingship in ancient Egypt. Succeeding dynasties of demigods, spirits and heroes covered thousands of years of Egyptian rule. all of this was, according to Syncellus, way before the first official pharaoh ruled over ancient Egyptian as mainstream history tells us.

Why has history and researchers ignored the Turin Papyrus and its chronology? Just like the Sumerian King List, it is believed impossible.

The Sumerian King List: “1-39 After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.”

The Sumerian King List

“1-39 After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. Then Larag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.”

From the remaining pieces of the invaluable list referred to as the Turin papyrus, it is possible to establish nine dynasties belonging to the predynastic Pharaohs, among them are: the Venerables of Memphis’, ‘the Venerables of the North’ and, lastly, the Shemsu Hor (the Companions, or Followers, of Horus) who ruled until the time of Menes.

turinroyalcanon

The final two lines of the column, which seem to represent a resume of the entire document are extremely interesting and remind us to the Sumerian King List. They read:
‘… Venerables Shemsu-Hor, 13,420 years; Reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years’.

The Sumerian King list has another incredible story to tell, and just like the Turin Papyrus, it has been tagged as impossible by the archaeological and historical community. The best-preserved specimen of the Sumerian King List is called the Weld-Blundell Prism, which is a clay, cuneiform inscribed vertical prism housed in the Ashmolean Museum. The Weld-Blundell Prism was written in cuneiform around 2170 BC by a scribe who signed as Nur-Ninsubur from the end of the Isin Dynasty. This incredible document provides a comprehensive list of the Sumerian Kings from the beginning, before the great flood, and the 10 kings who lived before the Flood who lived for thousands of years. The clay prism was found in Larsa, home of the fourth antediluvian king Kichunna, a few kilometers north of Ur.

“In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.”

“After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years…”

What are we missing and why is it that mainstream archaeologists and scholars have decided to ignore these invaluable ancient texts which record true history for its beginning?

 

ARE WE LIVING IN A COMPUTER SIMULATED UNIVERSE?

 



Just Imagine what would happen if we all were trapped in a Computer Game,and were just designed to perform specific tasks,our body and actions were controlled by someone else,probably by one who is more intelligent than us,then what would be the scenerio?Is it Possible?

Hold Your Breath…..

Firstly,Let’s understand…..

WHAT IS SIMULATION HYPOTHESIS?

According to this Hypothesis…

“Reality is not real,its just an illusion,or just a Simulation,most probably a computer simulation”



This Hypothesis gives rise to an unbelievable theory,which is quite hard to believe but somewhere,somewhat it can be true.This Hypothesis suggests that we all are living in a programmed universe,in which each and every single thing,is programmed.

It is believed that,we all are living in a computer simulated world,designed by our future Generation.Our actions are under Guidance.They would probably,have the ability to run many such simulations.

According to Moderator,Neil deGrasse Tyson,a direction of the museum’s Hayden Planetarium,He will put the odds at 50-50,that our entire existence is a program on someone else’s Hard Drive.“I Think the Likelihood may be very High”.
He explained the gap between Humans and our ancestors chimpanzee intelligence,despite the fact that we share almost 98% of our DNA.
Somewhere,Somewhat, there would be someone,who is more powerful and more intelligent than our own.


“If that’s the case,it is easy for me to imagine,that everything in our lives is just the creation of some other entity for their entertainment”he added.

There are many other theories also,that may force us to think,that we are programmed and living in a computer simulated Universe.

For example,the more we explore about the happening of our galaxy,planets,more they seems to obey mathematical law.

As per Max Tegmark,a cosmologist at MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,if he was a character in a computer game,he would also discover that the rules seemed completely rigid and mathematical.That just reflects the computer code in which it was written.”If it turns out tha we really are living in a version of “THE MATRIX”,though,so what?”
May be we are living in a simulation,may be we are not,but if we are its not so bad.

“My advice is to go out and do really interesting things,so,the simulators wont shut you down”he added.

BUT WHAT WE CONCLUDED?

After going through all these theories and believes,We can not deny the SIMULATION HYPOTHESIS in one go.
However,it may be hard to believe,but,Yes,there is 50% probability that we all are living in a COMPUTER SIMULATED UNIVERSE.

Sinister Sites: The Sansevero Chapel

kapella-san-severo-e1495738835602

Local legends about the Sansevero Chapel of Naples claim that the astonishing works of art it contains are the result of sorcery and black magic. The sculptures appear impossible to create by hand, while a macabre display featuring two actual human bodies is said to be the result of ritual killings. Also, adding to the occult aura surrounding the chapel, it is filled with Masonic symbolism.

At first glance, Capella Sansevero is your typical Italian chapel from the 17th century, tastefully filled with paintings and sculptures of a religious nature. However, a closer look at the various items in the chapel reveals that something is “off” about this place. Some sculptures are so “organic-looking” that they lead many to believe they were the result of a supernatural process. Furthermore, the enigmatic symbolism found around the chapel heavily hints to an allegorical esoteric message.

And, when visitors climb down a few stairs, they see this:

What the?

The chapel has on display two actual human remains with their entire nervous system on display. Creepily dubbed “Adam and Eve” – and even more creepily referred to as “anatomical machines” – this bizarre display has been the subject of all kinds of occult rumors.

To fully understand what is going on with the chapel, one must understand its creator: Raimondo di Sangro, the Prince of Sansevero. While he was considered a brilliant inventor and philosopher by many, others believed that he was a cruel black magician who killed people to conduct bizarre experiments.

A visit to his Sansevero Chapel gives credence to both points of view as it puts on display all of di Sangro’s alchemical genius … and madness. Before looking at the bizarre works of art on display at the chapel, let’s first look at the man behind it all.

Raimondo di Sangro, the “Sorcerer Prince”

From the age of 10, di Sangro was educated at the Jesuit College of Rome. In 1730, at age 20, he came back to Naples using the title “Prince of Sansevero”. He soon joined the ranks of occult secret societies.

“In spite of the religious training that he had received with the Jesuits, the young man soon joined the secret brotherhood of the Rosicrucians, where he was initiated into ancient alchemic rituals, the so called “sacred art” or “king’s art” which had been handed down through the centuries from Egyptian priest to their disciples. Don Raimondo had found his life calling. While maintaining the outmost silence about “his brothers” and the teachings he was receiving (he left no documents whatsoever on the activities of the mysterious sect) the Prince radically changed his life and devoted all his time to alchemy. Vials, ovens and alembics filled the cellar of his palace and at nighttime it was not rare to see strange, colored vapors and disgusting smells coming out of the barred windows of his cellar. It was at that time that Neapolitans started labeling him a sorcerer.”
– Rino Di Stefano, Raimondo de Sangro,
the “Sorcerer” Prince

Di Sangro introduced Freemasonry to his city as he became the head of the Neapolitan Masonic Lodge. This fact, combined with his knack for presenting peculiar inventions, such as an “eternal flame” made from a chemical compound of his creation and human skull bones, only grew the legend surrounding Di Sangro.

“Prince Raimondo di Sangro was known as an eccentric, enigmatic, and mystical man. He was the head of the Neapolitan Masonic lodge, the symbols of which are interspersed throughout the chapel, and was a student of numerous areas of the sciences, as well as alchemy and other mystical disciplines. He also spoke several exotic languages such as Hebrew and Arabic and was an inventor, some of his inventions of which were rather bizarre, such as a mechanized carriage with wooden horses that was said to be able to travel over both land and water. These eccentricities led to the Prince garnering a reputation as a practitioner of wizardry and black magic, and rumors abounded that he performed sinister magical rituals, human sacrifices, and curses. It was also said that he could perform great feats of alchemy, such as creating blood out of water or even thin air, and that he used the various body parts of his sacrificed victims in his odious spells and potions. The Prince was said to lock himself away for days on end and perform demented experiments on human beings, such as reanimating the dead. These dark rumors and legends that swirled around the Prince made him into a man to be feared and avoided; a larger than life black sorcerer who could bend magical and natural forces to his will. The Prince did little to deny these rumors and it is thought that he even encouraged them.”
– Brent Swancer, The Bizarre Anatomical Machines of Italy

One of di Sangro’s many “hobbies” was Bel Canto, which means “beautiful singing”. Sounds good, doesn’t it? Who doesn’t appreciate beautiful singing?

However, for di Sangro, “Bel Canto” means buying little boys from impoverished parents, castrating them and forcing them to sing.

“In spite of his being acquainted with the pleasures of family life and having children (…), the Prince enjoyed going around his many estates looking for young boys with beautiful voices. Usually he would find them in the church choir. Then he would “buy” them from their parents (usually poor, illiterate peasants who had many children) and had his personal physician, don Giuseppe Salerno, castrate them. He would then lock them up in the Conservatory of Jesus Christ’s Poor in Naples, where these young castrated boys started their careers as “sopranist”.
(…)

He saw in the castrati a search for perfection, which according to the Rosicrucians resulted from “annulling the dualism that comes from separation, a return to the primordial androgynous being”.
– Ibid.

As di Sangro’s reputation grew, and his writings gained publicity, he made powerful friends and powerful enemies. His involvement with Freemasonry lead to his writings being banned and for him to be ex-communicated by the Catholic Church.

He spent the later days of his life decorating the Sansevero Chapel, turning this small place into a grandiose representation of the “alchemical and Masonic path to illumination”.

A Mysterious Occult Temple

Before it was transformed by Raimondo di Sangro, the Sansevero Chapel was already the subject of bizarre rumors. It was said to have been constructed on an old temple of Isis and, to prove this fact, locals point to a massive Statue of the God of the Nile, located just around the corner from his home.

The Statue of the God of the Nile in Naples.

Adding to the sinister factor, the Palazzo Sansevero was the scene of a brutal murder at the end of the 16th century, when the composer Carlo Gesualdo caught his wife and her lover together and hacked them to death in their bed. Up until 1888, a passageway connected Palazzo Sansevero to the Sansevero chapel.

However, it is when Raimondo di Sangro turned this chapel into an alchemical project that the site became an attraction, especially in occult circles. Other than the enigmatic “hidden message” of the chapel, it is the works of art that mystify visitors. They appear to daringly declare: “I was an occultist and this is what I could do”.

The works of art in the Sansevero Chapel are indeed unique, powerful and unsettling, forcing visitors to ask: “How did he do that”? And, when one knows the esoteric and alchemical background of the Prince, observing them leads to the question: “Was this done through an occult process?”

The most compelling example of this is The Veiled Christ. Set in the middle of the chapel, this sculpture of Christ covered by a thin veiled has an unnerving quality: How was this marble sculpture made using a block of stone and a chisel? The veil is too … real.

“Veiled Christ”
A closeup of the face.

“Completed in 1753 by Giuseppe Sanmartino and commissioned by Raimondo di Sangro, it portrays Christ deposed after crucifixion, covered by a transparent veil. This veil is rendered with such subtlety as to be almost deceiving to the eye, and the effect seen in person is really striking: one gets the impression that the “real” sculpture is lying underneath, and that the shroud could be easily grabbed and lifted.

It’s precisely because of Sanmartino’s extraordinary virtuosity in sculpting the veil that a legend surrounding this Christ dies hard – fooling from time to time even specialized magazines and otherwise irreproachable art websites.

Legend has it that prince Raimondo di Sangro, who commissioned the work, actually fabricated the veil himself, laying it down over Sanmartino’s sculpture and petrifying it with an alchemic method of his own invention; hence the phenomenal liquidness of the drapery, and the “transparence” of the tissue.”
– Bizarrobazar, The Mystery of Chapel Sansevero

For centuries, a “black legend” surrounded this sculpture and others in the chapel that held that the Prince used a mysterious alchemical process to “marbelize” a fine cloth placed over the sculpture.

Veiled Christ from above.

Some observers noticed a troubling detail about that sculpture: Christ appears to still be breathing.

“There may be another small “anomaly” in this Veiled Christ, as there is a slight indentation over the nostril, as if the shroud is being sucked in by breath – is this “dead Jesus” alive? Did di Sangro believe that Jesus had not died on the Cross? If so, perhaps he was not only a Mason, but a member of another, even more mysterious, order?

Jesus disappeared from his tomb – but he is not alone. The Prince’s tombstone can still be seen in the chapel. He died on March 22, 1771, “from a sudden illness caused by his mechanic experiments”. During the long nights he spent in his laboratory he had probably inhaled or ingested some toxic substance, which this time had indeed become lethal. His sarcophagus, however, does not contain his body; someone stole it. When or why is not known.

Raimondo had a plaque placed in the chapel, stating that the person who commissioned those works (i.e. himself) was moved by a desire “to astonish, discover and teach”.
– Phillip Coppens, The Alchemical Chapel

On the left of Veiled Christ is The Chastity, a sculpture modeled after di Sangro’s mother Cecilia Caetani d’Aragona. The naked woman is covered from head to toe by a thin veil which reveals her forms in every detail. This work of art is, once again, another “supernatural” feat of sculpture. How can this effect be achieved using marble?

The Chastity.
A close-up shot.

“The Chastity (La Pudicizia) by Corradini, with its drapery veiling the female character as if it was transparent, is another “mystery” of sculpting technique, where the stone seems to have lost its weight, becoming ethereal and almost floating. Imagine how the artist started his work from a squared block of marble, how his mind’s eye “saw” this figure inside of it, how he patiently removed all which didn’t belong, freeing the figure from the stone little by little, smoothing the surface, refining, chiselling every wrinkle of her veil.”
– Op. Cit, Bizarrobazar.

Although the statue was modeled after di Sangro’s mother, it is clearly a tribute to the most important figure in Freemasonry: Veiled Isis.

“The veiled woman can be interpreted as an allegory of Wisdom, and the reference to the veiled Isis, special divinity of the science of initiation.”
– Made in South Italy, The Alchemist Chapel

Indeed, in occult symbolism, Veiled Isis is the ultimate representation of occult mysteries where the truth is veiled to the profane until true esoteric initiation.

“The mysteries of Hermeticism, the great spiritual truths hidden from the world by the ignorance of the world, and the keys of the secret doctrines of the ancient philosophers, are all symbolized by the Virgin Isis. Veiled from head to foot, she reveals her wisdom only to the tried and initiated few who have earned the right to enter her sacred presence, tear from the veiled of Nature its shroud of obscurity, and stand face to face with the Divine Reality. (…)

To the modern seeker she is the epitome of the Great Unknown, and only those who unveil her will be able to solve the mysteries of life, death, generation, and regeneration.”
– Manly P. Hall, The Secret Teachings of All Ages

Locals claim that The Chastity is placed exactly where a statue of Isis stood, back when the chapel was a temple of Isis.

On the opposite side of The Chastity is Disillusionment, another perplexing sculpture infused with profound symbolism. Modeled after the Prince’s father Antonio di Sangro, it depicts a man struggling to free himself from a net as he is being helped by a winged youth.

Disullisionnement by Francesco Queirolo.
A close-up shot.

Once again, a mystery surrounds this sculpture: How can a net be sculpted over a body that appears to have been already sculpted underneath? Was an alchemical process used to achieve this astonishing result?

Not unlike The Chasity, this sculpture is an allegory for a fundamental Masonic concept: The freeing of Man using the intellect.

“Its allegorical meaning is that man is intent on freeing himself from false beliefs (the net) with the aid of the intellect (the young man).”
– Rino Di Stefano, “San Severo”

Although there are several other sculptures in the chapel, the three above clearly stand out and are connected with their mysterious organic qualities. Furthermore, these three sculptures constitute an “esoteric triangle”. With The Chastity on the left (representing the female principle), Disillusionment on the right (representing the male principle) and Veiled Christ in the middle (representing the “perfected man”), the sculptures esoterically represent the most fundamental hermetic principle: Duality merging to create a perfected being.

In occult circles, this concept is personified by Isis and Osiris uniting to create Horus – the perfect being.

In my article about Sirius, I write:

“To achieve perfection, the initiate must successfully understand and internalize the dual nature of the world (good and evil; masculine and feminine; black and white, etc.) through alchemical metamorphosis. This concept is symbolically represented by the union of Osiris and Isis (the male and female principles) to give birth to Horus, the star-child, the Christ-like figure, the perfected man of Freemasonry – who is equated with the Blazing Star.”

The original floor of the chapel also heavily plays on the concept of duality and esoteric initiation.

The original floor of the chapel before it was changed in 1909.

The original floor was in black and white – meant to represent duality and the unification of opposing forces – not unlike the checkerboard floor found in all Masonic lodges. The intricate, tri-dimensional design depicts a labyrinth – a masonic symbol for initiation.

“Labyrinths and mazes were favored places of initiation among many ancient cults. Remains of these mystic mazes have been found among the American Indians, Hindus, Persians, Egyptians, and Greeks. (…) The famous labyrinth of Crete, in which roamed the bull-headed Minotaur, was unquestionably a place of initiation into the Cretan Mysteries.

Labyrinths were symbolic of the involvements and illusions of the lower world through which wanders the soul of man in its search for truth.”
– Hall, op. cit.

Just like duality opposes black and white, the sublime works of art described above are opposed to a morbid and sinister display: The Anatomical Machines.

Adam and Eve

The two “anatomical machines” on display at Capella Sansevero.

What the heck are those things might you ask? Well, they’re exactly what you’re hoping they are not. And maybe worse.

This exhibit consists of two actual skeletons of a mature male and a pregnant woman. Their entire nervous system is exposed, where the arteries are colored red and the veins are colored blue.

A closeup of the woman’s head.

The fetus of the pregnant woman was on also originally on display but the specimen mysteriously disappeared.

The macabre display.

How did Raimondo di Sangro preserve the nervous system of these human remains? Well, that’s a mystery that keeps on being mysterious. And, once again, a “dark legend” surrounds these “anatomical machines”.

It was indeed rumored that “Adam and Eve” were two servants of di Sangro who were injected with a substance that crystallized their nervous system – killing them in the process. Here’s a dramatic account of the legend:

“The Prince, just like a sorcerer, is stirring the preparation in a big cauldron. Eventually, the long-awaited reaction takes place: a mysterious liquid is ready. On the other side of the room, the two bound and gagged servants can’t even scream anymore. The man is sobbing, while the woman, even immobilized, stays vigilant and alert — perhaps the new life she carries in her womb prevents her from giving in to fear, commanding an already impossible defense. The Prince hasn’t got much time, he has to act quickly. He pours the liquid down a strange pump, then he gets close to his victims: in their eyes he sees an unnameable terror. He starts with the man, puncturing the jugular vein and injecting the liquid right into his bloodstream with a syringe. The heart will pump the preparation throughout the body, and the Prince watches the agonizing man’s face as the dense poison begins to circulate. There, it’s all done: the servant is dead. It will take two to three hours for the mixture to solidify, and surely more than a month for the putrified flesh to fall off the skeleton and the network of veins, arteries and capillaries the process turned into marble. Now it’s the woman’s turn.”
– bizzarrobazar, The mysteries of Sansevero Chapel

While recent “studies” claim that di Sangro artificially recreated the nervous systems of these bodies using wire and beeswax, I find this difficult to believe. I mean, just look at the closeup pictures above. How can a man create that complex system manually?

“These two skeletons are overlaid with a complex, twisting network of metal tendrils and hardened arteries and veins which represent the arterial system, viscera and musculature of human beings with amazing, meticulous accuracy. The skulls of the two figures are hinged, and can be opened to reveal an incredibly detailed spiderweb of blood vessels within. Upon their unveiling, the disturbing models were so mystifying and grotesque that it was believed that the dark Prince had actually used his black magic and alchemy on some of his unwilling servants to morph them into these abominations.

Regardless of whether they are the result of black magic or not, Adam and Eve present a number of very real mysteries, not the least of which is how they were made in the first place. For years the method of construction was the source of bafflement among scientists and doctors. Were the intricate hardened circulatory systems real, and if so how did they remain so remarkably well preserved for over 200 years? Were they artificial? If so, how could they be reproduced so faithfully? Since there was little to no documentation as to the original creation of the anatomical machines, these were questions for which the answers long remained elusive. The main theory was that the two anatomical machines were created through a process known as plasticization, or “human metallization,” which involves injecting substances directly into the circulatory systems of subjects while they were still living, after which these materials would travel along the veins and harden, painfully killing the unfortunate victim in the process. However, no one really knew for sure.”
– Op Cit. Swancer

No matter what the case may be, these anatomical machines aren’t simply there to freak out visitors. They are also said to serve a symbolic purpose in the alchemical “great work” that is the chapel.

Through various clues, it is believed that the anatomical machines represent the last stage of the alchemical process called Rubedo – the reddening – symbolized by a red phoenix rising from its ashes. Interesting fact: The “machines” were originally on display in a room called The Phoenix.

“the originary placement of the “anatomical machines”, inside the Phoenix Apartment on a revolving platform, looks like a symbolic choice: maybe Raimondo di Sangro thought of them as a depiction of the rubedo, a stage in the search for the philosopher’s stone in which matter recomposes itself, granting immortality.”
– Op. Cit., bizzarrobazar

The least one can say is that the chapel is surrounded by mystery. This is only amplified by the fact that di Sangro destroyed his own scientific archive before he died. Then, after his death, under threat of excommunication by the Church due to di Sangro’s involvement with Freemasonry and alchemy, his descendants destroyed what was left of his writings, formulae, laboratory equipment and results of experiments. All that is left is thinly veiled symbolism.

In Conclusion

In the image of its creator, the Chapel of Sansevero is brash and unapologetic. It is a celebration of the esoteric path and a showcase of the alchemical know-how of an enthusiastic occultist. While “occult” literally means “hidden from the public”, Raimondo di Sangro spent his life publicizing his interests and discoveries, barely “placing a veil” on the true nature of his experiments.

The Chapel is, therefore, one of those rare instances where “magic” can be seen in plain sight. While the sublime works of art of the chapel are a celebration of life, beauty, and spirituality, the morbid manipulation of cadavers below celebrate death, decay and the gruesome. In short, not unlike the black and white floors that used to cover this occult temple, the Chapel of Sansevero visually represents the dualistic nature of the universe and, by correspondence, the dualistic nature of man. Once these opposing forces are united, and the duality is resolved, esoteric perfection is said to be attained. To achieve this, one must not be afraid to look towards the heavens … and stare into the depth of hell.

Was the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaton in Fact the Father of Modern Monotheism?

Heretic-Pharaoh-Akhenaton

                                               How plentiful it is, what you have made,

Although they are hidden from view,

Sole god, without another beside you;

You created the earth as you wished,

When you were by yourself,

Mankind, all cattle and kine,

All beings on land, who fare upon their feet,

And all beings in the air who fly with their wings.

This passage may read like a passage from the Old Testament of the Bible; but, this is a quote from the Hymn of Aten, a work by Pharaoh Amenhotep IV better known as Akhenaton. This so-called heretic king was the only known Pharaoh in Egyptian history who believed in a monotheistic doctrine when most of the ancient world adhered to polytheism.

Just how did this Pharaoh start to form the practice of worshiping a single god?

Religion in Egypt Before the Sun God Aten

Religion seemed to dominate every aspect of ancient Egyptian culture.  Before pharaonic times, there were a variety of deities worshiped in various districts throughout Egypt.  It wasn’t until the First Dynastic Period under King Narmer that the country was unified.  Religion too was unified, but there wasn’t an official canonization of gods that minimized or eliminated the importance of lesser gods.   Instead, deities were cosmopolitan – all of the gods of Egypt were recognized as an important part of the pantheon.  This created some confusion and some overlap in beliefs but still no hegemony of deities seemed to exist in ancient Egypt.

Representations-of-six-gods

 

Representations of six gods from the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon (Public Domain)

This codification of religion brought a substantial change in kingship.  The birth of the concept of a Pharaoh emerged in which the king was no longer just a civil ruler but a part of the divinity – the godhead to be precise.  The new god-king ruled in conjunction with Ra, or Amen-Ra, and he was often depicted as a powerful man with a falcon head nested upon his head with cobra surrounding the sun.

 

Imentet and Ra from the tomb of Nefertari, 13th century BC (Public Domain)

With this uncontested rule of the god-king came another important change.  The role of the priests became much stronger and more dominant.  Unlike today’s priests, they weren’t charged with guiding the masses.  Instead, they were the keepers of tradition and played an integral part in appeasing the gods and goddesses through rituals and sacrifice.   During the 18th dynasty, there was a temple created in Amen-Ra’s honor and Thebes became the city representing a unified Egypt, after a brief takeover by the Hyksos.  The Pharaohs of this era paid homage to this god by incorporating the name Amen in their names, hence Amenhotep.

The Sun-Disk Pharaoh Emerges

By the time Amenhotep IV took the throne, pharaonic Egypt was in full swing.  Rituals and traditions of the priests had been set in stone for many generations.  Pharaohs simply assumed authority and let the priests do all the work while they enjoyed the finer things.  This didn’t sit well with Amenhotep IV, however.  Unlike his predecessors or even his successors, he was unhappy with tradition and was especially disgusted with the power of the priesthood.  Whether Amenhotep IV unhappiness was due to him being fed up with Egyptian decadence or him being tired of the priests control over the Pharaohs is uncertain.  But one thing for sure is that after five years of his reign he set out to turn Egyptian religious practices upside down and because of his divine authority, no one could stop

Statue-of-Akhenaten_0

 

Statue of Akhenaten – Father of Tutankhamun (CC BY-SA 2.0)

One of the first things he did was abandon the name Amen-, a name associated with a god he now despised – and changed his name to Akhenaten.  Aten was the name of the sun disk god he now embraced as the only god.  He then moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna.  Most likely this move represented a break from the old and freedom from the authority of the priesthood.  He then employed agents who outlawed the worship of other deities and forced the people to recognize only one god.  To ensure that the people would follow his orders, he closed the Temple of Amun and defaced all of the deities in the temple.

 

Statue of Amun (Public Domain)

Life After Aten

Akhenaten’s religious fervor was undoubtedly strong during his lifetime and his cronies supported his desire to spread the power and influence of the Aten religion.  Unfortunately, upon his death, the religion of Aten faded as swiftly as it had come.  Akhenaten’s reign became a historical mockery.  Even depictions of him seemed to mock his figure – oval eyes, high cheekbones, pot belly, frail build.  Artisans and historians alike worked to minimize Akhenaten’s significance, not by writing him out of history or art; but making him look like a madman with unusual laws and an unusual appearance.  The power of Egypt was restored to Thebes, the priesthood was reestablished, and even Akhenaten’s son defied his father’s teachings and reembraced the religion of Amun.

exaggerated-features-of-Akhenaton

The exaggerated features of Akhenaton (CC BY-NC-NA 2.0)

Could Akhenaton be Moses?

Akhenaten certainly seemed like a religious zealot devoted to a single god.  Perhaps his passions were divinely inspired or maybe they centered on a more worldly aim of absolute power and control free of the priesthood’s influence.  One man seems to imply that Akhenaten’s motives stemmed from the fact that he was Moses himself – the man depicted in the old testament of the Bible.  Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus – is convinced that archaeological and Biblical evidence prove that Akhenaten and Moses were the same man.

Moses-with-the-Tables

Ahmed-Osman

 

Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus

Interview with Expert Ahmed Osman on the Moses–Akhenaton Debate

Mel Childs: Why do you think that Akhenaton was Moses?

Ahmed Osman: The reason for me to conclude that King Akhenaten of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty

was the same person as Biblical Moses, as well as both of them have introduced the

first monotheistic belief, they lived in Egypt at the very same time.

MC:  It is implied that Moses of the Bible had a conflict with Pharaoh Ramses; however, history doesn’t account for Akhenaton having any issues with any other Pharaohs.  How do you explain this?

AO: The Pharaoh at the time of Moses is not mentioned by name in the Bible.

However, the name Ramses is mentioned as the city the Israelites had to build

for Pharaoh.

I believe that Akhenaten was forced to abdicate his throne for his son, Tutankhamun,

and live in Sinai in exile. When all the kings of the 18th Dynasty died, General Ramses,

who established the 19th Dynasty, was challenged by Akhenaten, who came back from exile,

demanding his throne.

When he lost his throne, Akhenaten also lost his name and became known as Moses.

This indicates in Egyptian the son or heir.

MC:  Do you think that Akhenaton’s monotheism influenced later forms of monotheism that emerged?

AO:  Akhenaten’s monotheism, not only influenced other religious beliefs, but also philosophy.

As ancient Egyptians believed that humans have physical and spiritual dimensions,

Akhenaten was the first person to recognize the cosmos also has a spiritual dimension.

Is Akhenaten the father of monotheism as it is known today?  Share your opinions below.

Top image: A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten (Public Domain)

By Melisha Childs

Resources

Nardo, D. Life in Ancient Egypt. San Diego:  Referencepoint Press, 2014.

Aldred, C. Akhenaten:  King of Egypt. NY: Thames & Hudson. 1988

Dersin, D. What Life was Like on the Banks of the Nile: Egypt 3050 – 30 BC. Fairfax: Time-Life Books. 1997.

Religious Literature. Hymn to Aten.

¿Hay una explicación natural para las edades antinaturales en el Génesis?

The-Unnatural-Ages-in-GenesisPor Nils Ekblad

¿Hay algún significado para las edades desconcertantes de los patriarcas antediluvianos en el capítulo quinto de Génesis? ¿Y por qué estos números difieren entre el texto masorético y la Septuaginta?  

Estas preguntas ocuparon al novelista sueco del siglo XIX, periodista, erudito y miembro posterior del parlamento, Viktor Rydberg durante los últimos 1860s.

En 1869, había encontrado respuestas a estas preguntas que se publicaban en sueco. Las ideas de Rydberg atrajeron el interés de Samuel Birch del British Museum y un artículo fue publicado en inglés unos años más tarde en Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877: vol. V) bajo el título “Key to the genealogical table of Los primeros patriarcas en Génesis “.

Desde entonces, el papel se ha dejado casi inadvertido.

La lista del rey sumerio todavía rompe historiadores después de más de un siglo de investigación

Los rollos de los mares muertos revelan que el arca de Noé se formó como una pirámide

Leyendas, Misterios, Luz y Tinieblas: La Historia Secreta de la Cueva Bíblica de los Patriarcas  

Lifespans-of-the-Biblical-Patriarchs

Esperanza de vida de los Patriarcas Bíblicos. (CC BY SA)

Tesis de Rydberg

El periódico sugiere que una tabla astronómica se esconde tras los números de los patriarcas. Esa tabla incluye las figuras centrales a la astronomía de la época y específicamente crucial al calendario lunisolar hebreo arcaico.

A pesar de lo plausible que fuera la solución, permaneció bastante especulativa con poca fuente de material para apoyarla. Más tarde hallazgos arqueológicos, sin embargo, como la Lista del Rey Sumerio y los Rollos del Mar Muerto, parece ofrecer cierto apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.

Cuneiform-writing_0

Escritura cuneiforme en un ladrillo de arcilla, escrita en lengua sumeria (durante la época del imperio akkadiano), listando a todos los reyes desde la creación de la realeza hasta 1800 aC, cuando se creó la lista. Exhibido en el museo de Ashmolean, Oxford. (CC BY SA 4.0) Esta es una pieza de evidencia que parece ofrecer apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.

Echemos un vistazo más de cerca. Comparando los linajes en Génesis 4 y 5, Rydberg asumió que compartían un documento fuente común, que él se propuso reconstruir. Creía que Seth, en lugar de Elohim, había sido la divinidad en el documento original. Dado que los nombres de Adán y Enosh tiene el mismo significado, calculó que uno de ellos fue añadido más tarde. Por lo tanto, Seth y Enosh no fueron incluidos en la reconstrucción. Terminó con una lista de ocho patriarcas antediluvianos.

Seth_-Patriarchs

Seth. Línea de los patriarcas en iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Catedral de la Asunción, Monasterio de San Cyril-Belozersky. Museo del monasterio de Cyril Belozersky. (CC BY SA 3.0)

En Génesis 5, tres números están conectados a cada patriarca. Su edad en el nacimiento de su primer hijo, los años restantes de su vida, y su edad en la muerte. La edad de Enoc siendo 365 ha sido tomada como una indirecta hacia una interpretación astronómica. Arreglar estos números en columnas y sumarlos juntos confirmó la sugerencia astronómica. La primera columna dio el número 1461, también conocido como el ciclo de Sothis – el número de años entre dos levantamientos heliacales de la estrella Sirius en la misma fecha del año solar. Esto implicaría que el diluvio sucedió exactamente un período Sothis después de la creación del hombre.

The-Deluge_4

“El diluvio” (1834) de John Martin. ( Dominio publico )

La segunda columna arrojó el número 4947. Ese número resulta ser el número de años lunares equivalente a 4800 años solares. En 600 años, este ciclo diverge con menos de un día, si se observa un día intercalado cada 50 años. Esto encaja perfectamente con los llamados jubileos descritos en Levítico (25: 8-13).

Estos dos números exactos que se producen cuando las edades de los patriarcas se suman juntos difícilmente pueden ser explicados como mera coincidencia.

Evidencia de apoyo

Además, la desintegración de la Lista del Rey Sumerio proporciona una posible explicación de por qué el texto masorético tiene diez patriarcas en lugar de ocho.

También es bien sabido desde el hallazgo de los pergaminos del Mar Muerto en los años 40 que el calendario era un tema candente para el movimiento que se refugió en Qumran por el Mar Muerto. Cuando se estableció la comunidad de Qumrán, el templo de Jerusalén había adoptado varias costumbres griegas, entre ellas el más conveniente ciclo metónico de 19 años para hacer calendarios.

scrolls_0

Dos rollos de los Rollos del Mar Muerto se encuentran en su ubicación en las cuevas de Qumran antes de ser retirados para el examen académico por los arqueólogos. ( Dominio publico )

Además, comparando el texto masorético con el de la Septuaginta, Rydberg notó algunas diferencias importantes. Aunque las edades completas de los patriarcas son las mismas (excepto Lamec), sus edades al nacimiento de sus primeros hijos (y por lo tanto el resto de sus vidas) difieren considerablemente. En el momento de la primera traducción griega de la Torá, el significado astronómico puede muy bien haber quedado obsoleto a favor del calendario lunisolar griego. Sin embargo, el linaje sirvió a un propósito como un documento pseudo-histórico atando sucesos posteriores con la creación del mundo.

Rydberg argumentó que el texto masorético se basaba en documentos babilonios para este propósito.

La Septuaginta, por otra parte, fue corregida para armonizar con los documentos históricos de los egipcios, muy probablemente la Aegyptiaca de Manetho. Al comparar los linajes de los patriarcas después del diluvio en la Septuaginta, parecen coincidir con las listas de reyes de los egipcios hasta la época de la dinastía número 30. El tiempo de las primeras once dinastías de Egipto se suma a un período de 2262 años, y también lo hacen los números de los Setenta de los patriarcas antes de la inundación

Genesis-524

Génesis 5:24: “Y anduvo Enoc con Dios, y no lo fue; Porque Dios lo tomó. “(KJV) Ilustración del 1728 ‘Figuras de la Biblia’; Ilustrado por Gerard Hoet (1648-1733) y otros, y publicado por P. de Hondt en La Haya; Imagen cortesía de Bizzell Bible Collection, Biblioteca de la Universidad de Oklahoma. (Dominio Público) Enoc fue el séptimo de los diez Patriarcas previos al diluvio.

Del mismo modo, el tiempo desde el diluvio hasta el éxodo asciende a 1777 años en la Septuaginta, que coincide con el tiempo de la duodécima dinastía hasta el faraón Tutmosis. Y finalmente, el tiempo desde el éxodo hasta el final de la dinastía 30 es 1117 años tanto en la Septuaginta como en los fragmentos existentes de Aegyptiaca.

En resumen, el artículo de Rydberg sugiere que los números en Génesis 5 eran originalmente una tabla astronómica, pero cuando los calendarios griegos hicieron los calendarios del jubileo obsoletos estos números fueron utilizados para reconciliar las historias de los hebreos con los babilonios en el texto masorético, y con los egipcios En la Septuaginta.