Puerto Rico, Now What? part 2

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For far too long, the people of Puerto Rico have chosen to accept the comfort of a familiar yet broken status quo over the uncertainty of real, revolutionary change. Indeed, many on the island and in the diaspora adhere to a colonized mentality, one that believes an independent Puerto Rico is economically unsustainable. But liberated nations across Asia, Africa, Europe, and Latin America have demonstrated otherwise.

Singapore is a prime example. With a size 14 times smaller than Puerto Rico, less natural resources, and a significantly higher population density, Singapore has thrived socially and economically since gaining independence — even exceeding the per capita income of the United States.

Wake Up!

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7 horribles orígenes históricos de los famosos logos corporativos

Usted no tiene que saber una maldita cosa acerca de la mitología griega y romana de haber oído hablar de Pandora o los troyanos – los personajes han sido utilizados en los logotipos de la empresa y por los equipos deportivos durante tanto tiempo como cualquiera de los dos ha existido. Después de todo, nadie tiene el copyright de los mitos antiguos. Entonces, ¿por qué crear un nuevo nombre para su empresa cuando se puede llamar a Cerberus? Una palabra de consejo, sin embargo. Antes de ir pegando una figura mitológica en su logotipo, tome unos minutos para buscar su historia. De lo contrario, obtendrá algunos resultados absolutamente desagradables hilarante. Me gusta …

 

La Sirena Starbucks

El símbolo se utiliza para: Una figura de apariencia elegante para poner en el signo de la cadena del café y tazas.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

Obsesión, adicción y muerte.

Si está familiarizado con el logotipo de Starbucks, es probablemente porque, estadísticamente, usted está dentro de un Starbucks ahora mismo. Si usted no está familiarizado con Starbucks, eso es porque usted es una persona hipotética creada para poder dar a este párrafo una estructura satisfactoria.

De cualquier manera, es posible que no se hayan dado cuenta de que la mujer en su etiqueta verde con los senos alegres y trato de pez espada gemelo es una sirena de la mitología griega.

Según el blog de Starbucks, fue elegida como el logotipo porque Starbucks estaba buscando un tema náutico para capturar el espíritu de Seattle. Recuerde que esto estaba detrás en 1971, cuando Seattle fue sabido para la navegación y los puertos de mar en vez de la roca del grunge, de la lluvia y de los hipsters.

En la mitología, las sirenas se ven constantemente como una personificación del océano – y eso no es una buena cosa. Son sociópatas brutales que te asesinen siendo atractivos. Según los eruditos, cantan una canción “irresistiblemente dulce” que “golpea cuerpo y alma en letargo fatal”. Los marineros que se cruzaban con una sirena llegaban a estar tan obsesionados que se estrellaban contra las rocas y morían.

Mucho de la misma manera que un sinnúmero de personas han sido seducidas por el atractivo del café caro, la compra de taza tras taza hasta que finalmente sucumbir, la compra de un ordenador portátil de Apple y pasar el resto de sus vidas en una de esas diminutas mesas, .

Medusa de Versace

El símbolo se utiliza para:

El logotipo en una etiqueta de moda italiana de gama alta.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

La vanidad y la promiscuidad te arruinarán. Lo más probable es que esté familiarizado con el nombre de Versace, aunque sea sólo como “esa palabra impresa en cosas que no puedo pagar”.

Igual de icónico es el logotipo, basado en Medusa:

Y por Medusa, nos referimos a una mujer tan horrible que mirándola convirtió a los hombres en piedra.

Para el crédito de Versace, la leyenda dice que Medusa era originalmente increíblemente hermosa, tanto que sedujo al dios del mar Poseidón. El único problema es que hicieron lo desagradable dentro del templo de Atenea, otro dios que no estaba muy contento. Así que Athena castigó a Medusa con los colmillos y las serpientes de pelo y todo eso.

El punto es, esta casa de moda internacional de alto precio basado su logotipo en un cuento cauteloso sobre los peligros de la lujuria y ser demasiado atractivo.

La historia de Medusa termina con ella finalmente ser decapitada. Su cabeza era utilizada como un arma, ya que incluso cuando fue cortada de su cuerpo todavía era fea y peligrosa.

Además, la sangre que se derramó de la cabeza se convirtió en serpientes venenosas que infestaban el mundo. Ahora ve a comprar ropa sexy, ¡maldita sea!

Preservativos troyanos

El símbolo se utiliza para:

Preservativos, presumiblemente para proyectar fuerza y ​​masculinidad.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

Un contenedor que se abrió y liberó un enjambre asesino de guerreros.

Podrían ser el ejemplo más famoso, pero la compañía más grande del condón en los E. es apenas el único caso de alguien que utiliza “Trojan” como su mascota. La Universidad del Sur de California lo utiliza como la mascota para sus equipos deportivos, y Googling alrededor revelará un montón de empresas que lo adoptan por su nombre y logotipo. ¿Y por qué no? Los troyanos eran guerreros malvados. Troy es, después de todo, la ciudad que resistió un asalto de la totalidad de Grecia durante 10 años consecutivos. Fuerte, resistente, todo lo que pueda desear en un equipo de fútbol y algo que abraza a su boner durante el sexo.

 

 

Pero pregunte a cualquiera lo que piensan cuando escuchan la palabra “troyano”, y le van a contar sobre el caballo de Troya. La parte más famosa de la historia de guerra de Troya. Sabes, al final, cuando Troy perdió. Conoces la historia, ¿no? Los invasores construyeron un enorme caballo de madera, sus soldados se escondieron dentro de él y los troyanos la trasladaron estúpidamente dentro de sus paredes? Entonces los soldados se escabulleron y asesinaron a todos? Después de todo, así es como conseguimos otro uso popular de la palabra “troyano”, el tipo de virus informático. No se llama eso por su capacidad de atrapar el semen. En su lugar, es una descarga de aspecto benigno que se abre y libera siete millones de gifs animados de pollas en su disco duro.

Así que lo que estamos diciendo es que “Trojan” probablemente no era la mejor elección de palabras para algo que está tratando de convencer a una mujer para poner en su cuerpo. A menos que el objetivo fuera convencerla … Ah no importa.

El Volkswagen Phaeton

El símbolo se utiliza para:

Una línea de sedanes de lujo. Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

Un adolescente imprudente que casi destruyó el mundo con su conducción de mierda.

Las compañías de motor tienden a nombrar sus coches basándose en lo que se desprende bien de la lengua. O bien es una palabra sin sentido, simple (Ford Escort, Honda Civic) o es una que invoca pensamientos de velocidad y peligro, como “víbora” o “mustang.” Así que Volkswagen probablemente pensó que “Phaeton” era una palabra genial. Después de todo, suena como un arma de Star Trek o algo así.

Presumiblemente no sabían que la historia de Faetón de la mitología griega es la historia de un joven testarudo que, cuando llegó a la mayoría de edad, pidió prestado el carro de su padre. Cuando su padre dijo: “Claro, lo que sea”, Phaeton salió, se divirtió y casi se estrelló antes de que Zeus lo matara con un rayo. Todos tenemos una historia similar de nuestra juventud.

 

Phaeton era el hijo de Apolo, el dios que llevaba el sol a través del cielo, por lo que su “carro” que estaba pidiendo prestado también fue remolcando el sol alrededor. Así que tal vez fue la idea, que este coche es tan badass que te sientes como si estuvieras conduciendo un carro tirando el sol masivo y ardiente detrás de ti?

Pero eso sólo hace que la historia sea peor, ya que estrellar su carro significó estrellar el sol en la Tierra. Así que Volkswagen nombró a su sedán de lujo después de un incidente de conducir borracho casi apocalíptico. Uno que sólo se evitó porque alguien asesinó al conductor antes de que pudiera hacer más daño.

HTC Droid Eris

El símbolo se utiliza para:

Una línea de teléfonos inteligentes.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

La diosa de la frustración. Los celulares parecen ser nombrados por las mismas personas que llaman coches.

Ellos obtienen palabras totalmente compuestas (Razr) o vagamente sci-fi sonando (Galaxy) o, en este caso, los nombres que suenan como personajes de videojuegos (Eris).

El Droid Eris fue el primer smartphone que llevaba Verizon Wireless y, al igual que muchos smartphones modernos, se jactaba de un montón de sonidos como “sense” y “multi-touch”, ninguno de los cuales importa más que el importante ” tener algún maldito servicio “característica que, por desgracia, no tenía.

Y es por eso que el nombre es tan involuntariamente apropiado – Eris era en realidad la diosa griega de la discordia, la frustración, la rivalidad y la contienda. Ella es conocida por follar las bodas y comenzar la guerra de Troya lanzando una manzana con las palabras “A la más justa” sobre una mesa llena de dioses griegos y diciendo “Ustedes probablemente pueden arreglar eso”.

Así que ella es básicamente el símbolo griego de los inconvenientes masivos, lo que tiene sentido cuando estás fumbling con sus dedos demasiado grasa sobre una pantalla táctil smudgy que grietas si tanto como proyectar una sombra en él. Aunque originalmente el teléfono fue llamado HTC Hero, Verizon cambió el nombre cuando accedieron a darle soporte. Parece como si alguien estuviera tratando de advertirnos.

 El símbolo de la medicina, el caduceo

El símbolo se utiliza para:

Instituciones médicas de todo el mundo.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

Engaño y ganancia.

Es probable que por lo menos conscientes del símbolo universal de los médicos y la medicina, pero cuando lo vio en la parte trasera de una ambulancia, es probable que no sabía lo que el infierno dos serpientes y un par de alas tenía que ver con cualquiera :

La respuesta no es mucho. Sin embargo, el símbolo, que se llama un caduceo, tiene fuertes connotaciones que implican el engaño, el engaño y la codicia corporativa. En realidad es el personal de Mercurio, dios romano de mentirosos y ladrones. Para ser justos, parecería ser más apropiadamente el símbolo de las compañías de seguro médicos más bien que de doctores.

El uso del caduceo como un símbolo de la medicina entró en boga en la década de 1850, muy probablemente debido a un malentendido hilarante – otra imagen, la vara de Asclepius, es en realidad el antiguo símbolo para el dios de la medicina y la curación, pero sólo tiene una serpiente y sin alas. Así que, sí, se alegra de que todavía no están viviendo en una época en la que el tratamiento médico involucrado obtener golpeado con una vara de serpiente.

Cuando estaban buscando un logotipo apropiado para los médicos y médicos, que simplemente tiene los dos símbolos confundidos. Resulta que palos con serpientes envueltos alrededor de ellos son más comunes en la mitología de lo que nadie se dio cuenta.

Cerberus Capital Management

El símbolo se utiliza para:

Una de las mayores firmas de capital privado de Estados Unidos.

Pero el Símbolo Realmente Significa:

Un perro vicioso que te esquiva y te devora vivo.

Una empresa de gestión de capital trabaja encontrando empresas que deberían estar haciendo muy bien pero no lo son y luego inyectándoles dinero en efectivo para que realmente puedan disparar por las estrellas. En el mejor de los casos, son como la gigantesca versión corporativa del Sr. Miyagi, enseñándole algunas técnicas de “cera de automóviles” y “movimientos de pelea” (estabilidad financiera e inteligencia de inversión, respectivamente) bully local “(clima económico tumultuoso). En el peor de los casos, son como un gigantesco perro de tres cabezas que te atrapa a un lado de un río y amenaza con comerte vivo si alguna vez intentas escapar.

Cerberus Capital eligió su nombre porque el fundador quería invocar la imagen de custodiar los fondos de sus clientes. Pero el perro mitológico es definitivamente mejor conocido por comer a la gente viva y atraparlos en un lugar que no quieren ser (Hades) – exactamente lo contrario de lo que una empresa floreciente quiere que su nuevo socio a hacer, a menos que de alguna manera su modelo de negocio .

Hicimos una broma acerca de Cerberus ser una malvado cabal de sombra, pero el fundador Steve Feinberg ya nos golpeó al golpe con este comentario:

“Tratamos de ocultar … Si alguien en Cerberus tiene su foto en el papel y una foto de su apartamento, haremos más que disparar a esa persona. Lo mataremos. La sentencia en la cárcel valdrá la pena.

Sí. Vamos a dejar eso por ahí solo.

 

Puerto Rico, y ahora que?

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Echando a un lado Los argumentos económicos y culturales , la estadidad nunca ha sido una opción real para Puerto Rico. Contrario  Alaska y Hawai, que se consideraban territorios “incorporados” con la intención de avanzar hacia la anexión a la Unión, la decisión de mantener a Puerto Rico como “no incorporada” fue una estratagema para evitar la estadidad.

De hecho, la condición de Puerto Rico como un territorio no incorporado significa que “pertenece a, pero no es parte de los EE.UU.” Y es poco probable que cambie. Un Congreso controlado por los republicanos nunca admitiría a Puerto Rico – con su deuda masiva y una base de votación abrumadoramente democrática (y no blanca, de habla hispana) – en la Unión, incluso si esa determinación es hecha por los residentes de la isla.

Despierta!

7 Horrifying Historical Origins of Famous Corporate Logos

 

 

You don’t have to know a damned thing about Greek and Roman mythology to have heard of Pandora or the Trojans — those characters have been used on company logos and by sports teams for as long as either has existed. After all, nobody holds the copyright on ancient myths. So why make up a new name for your company when you can just call it Cerberus?

A word of advice, though. Before you go sticking a mythological figure on your logo, take a few minutes to look up its story. Otherwise you get some downright hilarious unintentional results. Like …

 

The Starbucks Siren

The Symbol Is Used For:

A classy-looking figure to put on the coffee chain’s sign and cups.

Via Beerstreetjournal.comWe always thought it was Heather Graham holding up two striped bass.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

Obsession, addiction and death.

If you’re familiar with the Starbucks logo, it’s probably because, statistically, you are inside a Starbucks right now. If you’re not familiar with Starbucks, that’s because you’re a hypothetical person created just so we could give this paragraph a satisfying structure.

Either way, you may not have realized that the woman in their green label with the perky breasts and weird twin-fishtail deal going on is a siren from Greek mythology.

Via Wikimedia CommonsHer crotch has three handlebar mustaches, which means she may have Roosevelt blood.

According to the Starbucks blog, she was chosen as the logo because Starbucks was looking for a nautical theme to capture the spirit of Seattle. Remember that this was back in 1971, when Seattle was known for sailing and seaports instead of grunge rock, rain and hipsters.

In mythology, sirens are consistently seen as a personification of the ocean — and that’s not a good thing. They’re brutal sociopaths who murder you by being attractive. According to scholars, they would sing an “irresistibly sweet” song that “lapped both body and soul in[to] a fatal lethargy.” Sailors who crossed paths with a siren would become so obsessed that they would crash into the rocks and die.

Via WikipediaThough we like to think they were actually trying to run them over because the sirens played nothing but old Zeppelin covers.

Much in the same way that countless people have been seduced by the lure of overpriced coffee, buying cup after cup until they finally succumb, buying an Apple laptop and spending the rest of their lives at one of those tiny tables, joining the other broken victims.

 

Versace’s Medusa

The Symbol Is Used For:

The logo on a high-end Italian fashion label.

GettyMan, we remember when the “I’ve fallen into a lake with my leather clothes on” look was huge.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

Vanity and promiscuity will ruin you.

Chances are you’re familiar with the name Versace, even if it’s only as “that word printed on things I can’t afford.” Just as iconic is the logo, based on Medusa:

Via Guijarrodesign.comYou should probably avoid trying their clothing on in front of a mirror.

And by Medusa, we mean a woman so hideous that looking upon her turned men into stone.

To Versace’s credit, legend has it that Medusa was originally incredibly beautiful, so much so that she seduced the sea god Poseidon. The only problem is that they did the nasty thing inside the temple of Athena, another god who wasn’t too happy about it. So Athena punished Medusa with the fangs and the hair-snakes and all that. The point is, this high-priced international fashion house based their logo on a cautionary tale about the dangers of lust and being too attractive.

Photos.comHonestly, though? We’d still hit that.

Medusa’s tale ends with her finally being beheaded. Her head was used as a weapon, since even when severed from her body it was still ugly and dangerous. Also, the blood that spilled from the head turned into poisonous snakes that infested the world. Now go buy some sexy-ass clothes, damn you!

 

Trojan Condoms

 

The Symbol Is Used For:

Condoms, presumably to project strength and masculinity.

Via Yourlogoresources.comDon’t forget head. It definitely projects head.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

A container that broke open and released a murderous swarm of warriors.

They might be the most famous example, but the biggest condom company in the U.S. is hardly the only instance of somebody using “Trojan” as their mascot. The University of Southern California uses it as the mascot for their sports teams, and Googling around will reveal lots of companies adopting it for their name and logo. And why not? Trojans were badass warriors. Troy is, after all, the city that withstood an assault from the entirety of Greece for 10 straight years. Strong, resilient, everything you could want in both a football team and something that hugs your boner during sex.

Via WikipediaMakes you want to drag dead bodies behind your chariot like wedding cans.

But ask anyone what they think of when they hear the word “Trojan,” and they’re going to tell you about the Trojan horse. The most famous part of the Trojan war story. You know, at the end, when Troy lost. You know the story, right? The invaders built a huge wooden horse, their soldiers hid inside of it and the Trojans stupidly wheeled it inside their walls? Then the soldiers sneaked out and murdered everyone?

After all, that’s how we get another popular usage of the word “Trojan,” the kind of computer virus. It’s not called that for its ability to trap semen. Instead, it’s a benign-looking download that opens up and releases seven billion animated gifs of dicks onto your hard drive.

Photos.com“His tail is raising! Unplug the tower!”

So what we’re saying is that “Trojan” was probably not the best choice of words for something you’re trying to convince a woman to put inside her body. Unless the goal was to convince her it was safe, before …

Ah, never mind.

 

The Volkswagen Phaeton

The Symbol Is Used For:

A line of luxury sedans.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

A reckless teen who almost destroyed the world with his shitty driving.

Motor companies tend to name their cars based on what rolls nicely off the tongue. Either it’s a meaningless, simple word (Ford Escort, Honda Civic) or it’s one that invokes thoughts of speed and danger, like “viper” or “mustang.” So Volkswagen probably just thought “Phaeton” was a cool word. After all, it sounds like a weapon out of Star Trek or something.

GettyOr every dance crew ever formed.

They presumably did not know that the story of Phaeton from Greek mythology is the tale of a headstrong young man who, when he came of age, asked to borrow his father’s chariot. When his father said, “Sure, whatever,” Phaeton went out, had some fun and almost crashed it before Zeus killed him with a lightning bolt. We all have a similar story from our youth.

Phaeton was the son of Apollo, the god who carried the sun across the sky, so his “chariot” he was borrowing was also towing the sun around. So maybe that was the idea, that this car is so badass that you’ll feel like you’re driving a chariot hauling the massive, burning sun behind you?

GettyOr Matthew Perry, which is pretty much the same load.

But that just makes the story worse, since crashing his chariot meant crashing the sun into the Earth. So Volkswagen named their luxury sedan after a near-apocalyptic drunk driving incident. One that was only avoided because someone murdered the driver before he could do any further damage.

 

HTC Droid Eris

Via Letsgomobile.org

The Symbol Is Used For:

A line of smartphones.

A line that was evidently extremely proud of its clock feature.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

The goddess of frustration.

Cellphones seem to be named by the same people who name cars. They either get totally made-up words (Razr) or vaguely sci-fi sounding ones (Galaxy) or, in this case, names that sound like video game characters (Eris).

“Introducing the Verizon Sonic. Because video games are things.”

The Droid Eris was the first smartphone that Verizon Wireless carried, and like a lot of modern smartphones, it boasted a lot of cool sounding features like “sense” and “multi-touch,” none of which matter more than the all-important “having some goddamn service” feature which, unfortunately, it didn’t have.

And that’s why the name is so unintentionally fitting — Eris was actually the Greek goddess of discord, frustration, rivalry and strife. She’s known for fucking up weddings and starting the Trojan War by throwing an apple inscribed with the words “To the fairest” onto a table full of Greek gods and saying “You guys can probably sort that out.”

Via WikipediaWe hear Lowell McAdam has hooked feet.

So she’s basically the Greek symbol for massive inconvenience, which makes sense when you’re fumbling with your too-fat fingers over a smudgy touch screen that cracks if you so much as cast a shadow on it. Though originally the phone was called the HTC Hero, Verizon changed the name when they agreed to provide support for it. It seems almost like someone was trying to warn us.

 

The Symbol of Medicine, Caduceus

 

The Symbol Is Used For:

Medical institutions the world over.

Photos.com“Well, four breast exams in one day seems a little excessive, but you’re the doctor.”

But the Symbol Actually Means:

Deceit and profit.

You’re probably at least passingly aware of the universal symbol of doctors and medicine, but when you saw it on the back of an ambulance, you likely didn’t know what the hell two snakes and a pair of wings had to do with either:

Photos.comBut you were pretty sure that if you rolled at least a 12, you’d resist its poison.

The answer is not a lot. However, the symbol, which is called a caduceus, does have strong connotations involving deceit, trickery and corporate greed. It’s actually the staff of Mercury, Roman god of liars and thieves. To be fair, it would seem to be more fittingly the symbol of medical insurance companies rather than doctors.

The use of the caduceus as a symbol of medicine came into vogue in the 1850s, most likely due to a hilarious misunderstanding — another image, the rod of Asclepius, is actually the ancient symbol for the god of medicine and healing, but it only has one snake and no wings. So, yeah, be glad you’re not still living in an era when medical treatment involved getting smacked with a snake rod.

Via Medgadget.comAnd don’t dwell too hard on this article during your next root canal.

 When they were looking for an appropriate logo for doctors and medics, they simply got the two symbols confused. It turns out sticks with snakes wrapped around them are more common in mythology than anyone realized.

Cerberus Capital Management

The Symbol Is Used For:

One of the USA’s largest private equity firms.

GettyThey’ve been known to buy a small company or two.

But the Symbol Actually Means:

A vicious dog that corners you and devours you alive.

A capital management firm works by finding companies that should be doing really well but aren’t and then injecting them with some cash so that they can really shoot for the stars. At their best, they’re like the gigantic corporate version of Mr. Miyagi, teaching you some “car-wax techniques” and “badass fight moves” (financial stability and investment smarts, respectively) so you can hold your own against the “local bully” (tumultuous economic climate). At their worst, they’re like a gigantic three-headed dog that traps you on one side of a river and threatens to eat you alive if you ever try to escape.

Via WikipediaAnd then it pees on the carpet and swats your nose with a newspaper.

Cerberus Capital chose its name because the founder wanted to invoke the image of guarding his clients’ funds. But the mythological dog is definitely best known for eating people alive and trapping them in a place they don’t want to be (Hades) — exactly the opposite of what a burgeoning company wants their new partner to do, unless that’s somehow their business model.

We’d make a joke about Cerberus being an evil shadowy cabal, but founder Steve Feinberg already beat us to the punch with this comment:

“We try to hide … If anyone at Cerberus has his picture in the paper and a picture of his apartment, we will do more than fire that person. We will kill him. The jail sentence will be worth it.”

Via WikipediaHe then drank the blood of an orphan and molested Hitler’s corpse back to life before disappearing in a ball of flame.

Yeah. We’ll just leave that up there all by itself.

J.F. Sargent TumblesTweets and is the managing editor of Pculpa.com.

For more ridiculous backstories you need to know, check out The 7 Most WTF Origins of Iconic Pop Culture Franchises. Or check out why Hollywood knows better, but still doesn’t give a shit in 5 Old-Timey Prejudices That Still Show Up in Every Movie.

And stop by LinkSTORM to learn what SWAIM really stands for.

 

Why Puerto Rico Don’t Get A Major Hurricane since 1998

8ae72-arecibo-radio-telescope-puerto-rico

I remember every year growing up in the Island the hurricane season, a time for stress seen that Puerto Rico it’s in the path of most hurricanes coming in from Cabo Verde Africa.

The Island has seen a lot of devastating hurricanes  for example:

4311626_sanfelipe

San Felipe II

September 13, 1928 (Category 5) It crossed the island from southeast to northwest with winds of 160 miles per hour. It caused 312 deaths and $ 50 million in estimated damages.

4311626_capture_13

 San Ciprián 

September 26, 1932 (Category 3). It wrapped us from east to west with estimated winds at about 120 miles per hour. It caused 225 deaths and $ 1,500,000 in estimated damages.

4311626_santaclara

Santa Clara

August 11, 1956 (Category 1). He is also known as Betsy. He entered through Patillas and left for Arecibo. It caused 16 deaths and $ 40 million in estimated damages.

4311626_e5a0f30a-98af-4108-a6b7-5a03f806484c

Hugo

18 September 1989 (Category 4). It greatly affects Vieques and Culebra and the eastern half of Puerto Rico. It caused two deaths and one trillion in estimated damages

4311626_6bb3c18b-91ad-46ff-a657-b8cf7c03d084

Georges

21 September 1998 (Category 3). It crossed the island from east to west, affecting all Puerto Rico with winds of 115 miles per hour. No deaths were reported from the phenomenon. The estimated damages exceeded 1 billion.

4311626_f1b06e35-a8e1-4ac7-a57b-1ce9f9dba543

Irene

August 21-22, 2011. The radar estimates, the major blast was in the mountainous zone and its winds reached 111 miles per hour. It caused damages estimated at $ 500 million. although she didn’t touch ground.

The HAARP Station started operating in 1993. The current IRI has been operating since 2007 and its main contractor was BAE Advanced Technologies

“It is basically the same as HAARP for the science, except that HAARP was in the Auroral Region, where the physics of the ionosphere is quite different with all the energetic particles and magnetic fields,” Penn State Electrical Engineering Professor Jim Breakall, WA3FET, told ARRL. “HAARP also had 3 gigawatts of effective radiated power, where Arecibo will only be about 200 megawatts.”

The Arecibo Observatory Amateur Radio Club, KP4AO, is headquartered at the research facility, which celebrated its 50th anniversary last fall.

The National Science Foundation and Cornell University, which previously operated Arecibo Observatory, contracted with Penn State’s Electrical Engineering Department to construct the “new and enhanced” HF ionospheric instrument. It will be used to study the interaction between HF radio energy and ionospheric plasma.

The new facility will replace an earlier ionospheric heater in Islote, Puerto Rico, that was destroyed by Hurricane Georges in 1998. Rather than rebuild that installation, the new instrument will use the observatory’s 1000 foot dish for its antenna. This will keep all research activities involving ionospheric modification at the observatory proper.

Plans call for a design based on a Cassegrain screen concept of phased array at the bottom of the dish feeding a sub-reflector mesh that hangs above the dish from three support towers. Breakall and his team of graduate students at Penn State have done all of the electrical design and modeling of this new antenna system.

“There are three crossed-dipoles for 5.1 MHz and another three for 8.175 MHz, forming an array that will beam energy up to a net mesh reflector that will hang from the three big towers,” Breakall explained. “This Cassegrain screen will then reflect energy back down to the 1000 foot dish and beam an effective radiated power of hundreds of megawatts up to the ionosphere to modify it.” Each dipole is fed from a 100 kW transmitter, yielding a total transmitted power of 600 kW.

An even earlier HF heating antenna system also was suspended from the platform above the dish and driven by a single 100 kW transmitter over a frequency range of 3 to 10 MHz. That design suffered from arcing problems and was taken out of service in the 1970s.

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HAARP is the subject of numerous conspiracy theories. Various individuals have speculated about hidden motives and capabilities of the project. For example, Rosalie Bertell warned in 1996 about the deployment of HAARP as a military weapon.[31] Michel Chossudovsky stated in a book published by the Committee on Monetary and Economic Reform that “recent scientific evidence suggests that HAARP is fully operational and has the capability of triggering floodshurricanesdroughts and earthquakes.”[32] Over time, HAARP has been blamed for generating such catastrophes, as well as thunderstorms, in IranPakistanHaitiTurkeyGreece and the Philippines, and even major power outages, the downing of TWA Flight 800Gulf War syndrome, and chronic fatigue syndrome.[6][33][34]

Potential as a weapon

The HAARP program was controversial in the mid-1990s, due to the assumption that Station antennas could be used as weapons. In August 2002, HAARP technology was mentioned as a critical issue in the Russian Duma (parliament). The Duma produced a press release on the HAARP program, written by the defense and international affairs committees, signed by 90 representatives and presented to then-President Vladimir Putin. The press release indicated the following: “The United States is creating new comprehensive geophysical weapons that can influence the troposphere with low-frequency radio waves … The importance of this qualitative leap is comparable to the transition from white weapons to firearms, or conventional weapons to nuclear weapons. This new type of weapon differs from any other known type in which the troposphere and its components become objects on which to influence. ”

The European Parliament, for its part, in a resolution of 28 January 1999 on the environment, security and foreign policy (A4-0005 / 1999), pointed out that the HAARP station manipulated the environment for military purposes and requested that, which raised a worldwide problem (paragraph 24), was the subject of an evaluation by STOA concerning its impact on the local and global environment and on public health in general. In that same resolution of the European Parliament, it called for an international convention for the global prohibition of any type of development and deployment of weapons that could allow any form of manipulation of human beings.

Allegations include the following:

  • Nick Begich Jr., the son of the late U.S. Representative Nick Begich and brother of former U.S. Senator Mark Begich, is the author of Angels Don’t Play This HAARP. He has claimed that HAARP could trigger earthquakes and turn the upper atmosphere into a giant lens so that “the sky would literally appear to burn.” He maintains a website that claims HAARP is a mind control device.[35][36]
  • A Russian military journal wrote that ionospheric testing would “trigger a cascade of electrons that could flip Earth’s magnetic poles”.[35]
  • The Alaska state legislature and the European Parliament held hearings about HAARP, the latter citing environmental concerns.[37]
  • Former Governor of Minnesota, ex-professional wrestler, and conspiracy theorist Jesse Ventura questioned whether the government is using the site to manipulate the weather or to bombard people with mind-controlling radio waves. An Air Force spokeswoman said Ventura made an official request to visit the research station but was rejected. “He and his crew showed up at HAARP anyway and were denied access.”[38]
  • Physicist Bernard Eastlund claimed that HAARP includes technology based on his own patents that has the capability to modify weather and neutralize satellites.[5]
  • It has been proposed as a cause of low frequency background hums said to be heard in various locales.[39] 
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Two Georgia men arrested on drug charges in November 2016 were reportedly plotting domestic terrorism based on conspiracy theories about HAARP. The Coffee County Sheriff’s Office say the men possessed a “massive arsenal” that included AR-15 rifles, Glock handguns, a Remington rifle and thousands of rounds of ammunition. According to police, the men wanted to destroy HAARP because they believed the facility manipulates the weather, controls minds and even traps the souls of people. Police say the men confessed that “God told them to go and blow this machine up that kept souls, so souls could be released.”[40][41]

Stanford University professor Umran Inan told Popular Science that weather-control conspiracy theories were “completely uninformed,” explaining that “there’s absolutely nothing we can do to disturb the Earth’s [weather] systems. Even though the power HAARP radiates is very large, it’s minuscule compared with the power of a lightning flash—and there are 50 to 100 lightning flashes every second. HAARP’s intensity is very small.”[5] Computer scientist David Naiditch characterizes HAARP as “a magnet for conspiracy theorists”, saying that HAARP attracts their attention because, “its purpose seems deeply mysterious to the scientifically uninformed.”[6] Journalist Sharon Weinberger called HAARP “the Moby Dick of conspiracy theories,” and said the popularity of conspiracy theories often overshadows the benefits HAARP may provide to the scientific community.[42][43] Austin Baird writing in the Alaska Dispatch said, “What makes HAARP susceptible to conspiracy criticism is simple. The facility doesn’t open its doors in the same way as other federally-funded research facilities around the country, and it doesn’t go to great efforts to explain the importance of its research to the public.”[33] In August 2016, in response to these claims, the facility announced it would have an open day, allowing visitors to tour the complex.[44]

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Important to note is that Hurricane George was the last one to actually impact Puerto Rico directly and this was back in 1998.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Frequency_Active_Auroral_Research_Program

 

Was the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaton in Fact the Father of Modern Monotheism?

Heretic-Pharaoh-Akhenaton

                                               How plentiful it is, what you have made,

Although they are hidden from view,

Sole god, without another beside you;

You created the earth as you wished,

When you were by yourself,

Mankind, all cattle and kine,

All beings on land, who fare upon their feet,

And all beings in the air who fly with their wings.

This passage may read like a passage from the Old Testament of the Bible; but, this is a quote from the Hymn of Aten, a work by Pharaoh Amenhotep IV better known as Akhenaton. This so-called heretic king was the only known Pharaoh in Egyptian history who believed in a monotheistic doctrine when most of the ancient world adhered to polytheism.

Just how did this Pharaoh start to form the practice of worshiping a single god?

Religion in Egypt Before the Sun God Aten

Religion seemed to dominate every aspect of ancient Egyptian culture.  Before pharaonic times, there were a variety of deities worshiped in various districts throughout Egypt.  It wasn’t until the First Dynastic Period under King Narmer that the country was unified.  Religion too was unified, but there wasn’t an official canonization of gods that minimized or eliminated the importance of lesser gods.   Instead, deities were cosmopolitan – all of the gods of Egypt were recognized as an important part of the pantheon.  This created some confusion and some overlap in beliefs but still no hegemony of deities seemed to exist in ancient Egypt.

Representations-of-six-gods

 

Representations of six gods from the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon (Public Domain)

This codification of religion brought a substantial change in kingship.  The birth of the concept of a Pharaoh emerged in which the king was no longer just a civil ruler but a part of the divinity – the godhead to be precise.  The new god-king ruled in conjunction with Ra, or Amen-Ra, and he was often depicted as a powerful man with a falcon head nested upon his head with cobra surrounding the sun.

 

Imentet and Ra from the tomb of Nefertari, 13th century BC (Public Domain)

With this uncontested rule of the god-king came another important change.  The role of the priests became much stronger and more dominant.  Unlike today’s priests, they weren’t charged with guiding the masses.  Instead, they were the keepers of tradition and played an integral part in appeasing the gods and goddesses through rituals and sacrifice.   During the 18th dynasty, there was a temple created in Amen-Ra’s honor and Thebes became the city representing a unified Egypt, after a brief takeover by the Hyksos.  The Pharaohs of this era paid homage to this god by incorporating the name Amen in their names, hence Amenhotep.

The Sun-Disk Pharaoh Emerges

By the time Amenhotep IV took the throne, pharaonic Egypt was in full swing.  Rituals and traditions of the priests had been set in stone for many generations.  Pharaohs simply assumed authority and let the priests do all the work while they enjoyed the finer things.  This didn’t sit well with Amenhotep IV, however.  Unlike his predecessors or even his successors, he was unhappy with tradition and was especially disgusted with the power of the priesthood.  Whether Amenhotep IV unhappiness was due to him being fed up with Egyptian decadence or him being tired of the priests control over the Pharaohs is uncertain.  But one thing for sure is that after five years of his reign he set out to turn Egyptian religious practices upside down and because of his divine authority, no one could stop

Statue-of-Akhenaten_0

 

Statue of Akhenaten – Father of Tutankhamun (CC BY-SA 2.0)

One of the first things he did was abandon the name Amen-, a name associated with a god he now despised – and changed his name to Akhenaten.  Aten was the name of the sun disk god he now embraced as the only god.  He then moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna.  Most likely this move represented a break from the old and freedom from the authority of the priesthood.  He then employed agents who outlawed the worship of other deities and forced the people to recognize only one god.  To ensure that the people would follow his orders, he closed the Temple of Amun and defaced all of the deities in the temple.

 

Statue of Amun (Public Domain)

Life After Aten

Akhenaten’s religious fervor was undoubtedly strong during his lifetime and his cronies supported his desire to spread the power and influence of the Aten religion.  Unfortunately, upon his death, the religion of Aten faded as swiftly as it had come.  Akhenaten’s reign became a historical mockery.  Even depictions of him seemed to mock his figure – oval eyes, high cheekbones, pot belly, frail build.  Artisans and historians alike worked to minimize Akhenaten’s significance, not by writing him out of history or art; but making him look like a madman with unusual laws and an unusual appearance.  The power of Egypt was restored to Thebes, the priesthood was reestablished, and even Akhenaten’s son defied his father’s teachings and reembraced the religion of Amun.

exaggerated-features-of-Akhenaton

The exaggerated features of Akhenaton (CC BY-NC-NA 2.0)

Could Akhenaton be Moses?

Akhenaten certainly seemed like a religious zealot devoted to a single god.  Perhaps his passions were divinely inspired or maybe they centered on a more worldly aim of absolute power and control free of the priesthood’s influence.  One man seems to imply that Akhenaten’s motives stemmed from the fact that he was Moses himself – the man depicted in the old testament of the Bible.  Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus – is convinced that archaeological and Biblical evidence prove that Akhenaten and Moses were the same man.

Moses-with-the-Tables

Ahmed-Osman

 

Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus

Interview with Expert Ahmed Osman on the Moses–Akhenaton Debate

Mel Childs: Why do you think that Akhenaton was Moses?

Ahmed Osman: The reason for me to conclude that King Akhenaten of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty

was the same person as Biblical Moses, as well as both of them have introduced the

first monotheistic belief, they lived in Egypt at the very same time.

MC:  It is implied that Moses of the Bible had a conflict with Pharaoh Ramses; however, history doesn’t account for Akhenaton having any issues with any other Pharaohs.  How do you explain this?

AO: The Pharaoh at the time of Moses is not mentioned by name in the Bible.

However, the name Ramses is mentioned as the city the Israelites had to build

for Pharaoh.

I believe that Akhenaten was forced to abdicate his throne for his son, Tutankhamun,

and live in Sinai in exile. When all the kings of the 18th Dynasty died, General Ramses,

who established the 19th Dynasty, was challenged by Akhenaten, who came back from exile,

demanding his throne.

When he lost his throne, Akhenaten also lost his name and became known as Moses.

This indicates in Egyptian the son or heir.

MC:  Do you think that Akhenaton’s monotheism influenced later forms of monotheism that emerged?

AO:  Akhenaten’s monotheism, not only influenced other religious beliefs, but also philosophy.

As ancient Egyptians believed that humans have physical and spiritual dimensions,

Akhenaten was the first person to recognize the cosmos also has a spiritual dimension.

Is Akhenaten the father of monotheism as it is known today?  Share your opinions below.

Top image: A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten (Public Domain)

By Melisha Childs

Resources

Nardo, D. Life in Ancient Egypt. San Diego:  Referencepoint Press, 2014.

Aldred, C. Akhenaten:  King of Egypt. NY: Thames & Hudson. 1988

Dersin, D. What Life was Like on the Banks of the Nile: Egypt 3050 – 30 BC. Fairfax: Time-Life Books. 1997.

Religious Literature. Hymn to Aten.

Is There a Natural Explanation For The Unnatural Ages in Genesis?

The-Unnatural-Ages-in-Genesis

By Nils Ekblad

Is there any significance to the puzzling ages of the antediluvian patriarchs in the fifth chapter of Genesis? And why do these numbers differ between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint?

 

These questions occupied the Swedish 19th century novelist, journalist, scholar and later member of parliament, Viktor Rydberg during the late 1860s.

In 1869, he had come up with answers to these questions that were published in Swedish. The ideas of Rydberg caught the interest of Samuel Birch of the British Museum and a paper was published in English a few years later in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877:vol.V) under the title “ Key to the genealogical table of the first patriarchs in Genesis ”.

Since then, the paper has been left largely unnoticed.

Lifespans-of-the-Biblical-Patriarchs

Lifespans of the Biblical Patriarchs. ( CC BY SA )

Rydberg’s Thesis

The paper suggests that an astronomical table is hiding behind the numbers of the patriarchs. That table includes figures central to the astronomy of the time and specifically crucial to the archaic Hebrew lunisolar calendar.

However plausible the solution was, it remained quite speculative with little source material to support it. Later archaeological findings however, like the Sumerian King List and the Dead Sea Scrolls, seems to offer some support to Rydberg’s thesis.

Cuneiform-writing_0

 

Cuneiform writing on a clay brick, written in the Sumerian language (during the time of the Akkadian empire), listing all kings from the creation of kingship until 1800 BC when the list was created. Displayed at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.  (CC BY SA 4.0 ) This is one piece of evidence which seems to offer support for Rydberg’s thesis.

Let´s take a closer look at it. Comparing the lineages in Genesis 4 and 5, Rydberg assumed they shared a common source document, which he set out to reconstruct. He believed Seth, rather than Elohim, had been the divinity in the original document. Since the names Adam and Enosh has the same meaning, he figured one of them was added later. Seth and Enosh were therefore not included in the reconstruction. He ended up with a list of eight antediluvian patriarchs.

Seth_-Patriarchs

 

Seth. Patriarchs line in iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Cathedral of the Assumption, St. Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Museum of Cyril Belozersky Monastery. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

In Genesis 5 three numbers are connected to each patriarch. Their age at the birth of their first son, the remaining years of their life, and their age at death. The age of Enoch being 365 has been taken as a hint towards an astronomical interpretation. Arranging these numbers in columns and adding them together confirmed the astronomical hint. The first column gave the number 1461, otherwise known as the Sothis-cycle – the number of years between two heliacal risings of the star Sirius on the same date of the solar year. This would imply that the deluge happened exactly a Sothis-period after the creation of man.

The-Deluge_4

‘The Deluge’ (1834) by John Martin. ( Public Domain )

The second column yielded the number 4947. That number happens to be the number of lunar years equivalent to 4800 solar years. In 600 years, this cycle diverges with less than a day, if an intercalary day is observed every 50th year. This fits perfectly with the so-called jubilees described in Leviticus (25:8–13).

These two exact numbers occurring when the ages of the patriarchs are added together can hardly be explained away as mere coincidences.

Supporting Evidence

Furthermore, the unearthing of the Sumerian King List provides a possible explanation to why the Masoretic text has ten patriarchs rather than eight.

Also, it is well known since the finding of the Dead Sea scrolls in the 1940s that the calendar was a burning issue for the movement that took refuge in Qumran by the Dead Sea. By the time the Qumran Community was established, the temple in Jerusalem had adopted several Greek customs, among them the more convenient metonic 19-year cycle for making calendars.

scrolls_0

Two scrolls from the Dead Sea Scrolls lie at their location in the Qumran Caves before being removed for scholarly examination by archaeologists. ( Public Domain )

Moreover, comparing the Masoretic text with that of the Septuagint, Rydberg noticed some important differences. Although the full ages of the patriarchs are the same (except for Lamech), their ages at the birth of their first sons (and hence the remainder of their lives) differ considerably. By the time of the first Greek translation of the Torah, the astronomical significance may very well have become out of date in favor of the Greek lunisolar calendar. However, the lineage did serve a purpose as a pseudo-historical document tying together later events with the creation of the world.

Rydberg argued that the Masoretic text was based on Babylonian documents for exactly this purpose.

The Septuagint, on the other hand, was corrected to harmonize with the historical documents of the Egyptians, most probably Manetho’s Aegyptiaca. When comparing lineages of the patriarchs after the flood in the Septuagint, they seem to match the king lists of the Egyptians up to the time of the 30th dynasty.

The time of the first eleven dynasties of Egypt adds up to a period of 2262 years, and so do the Septuagint numbers of the patriarchs before the flood

Genesis-524

 

 

Genesis 5:24: “And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” (KJV) illustration from the 1728 ‘Figures de la Bible’; illustrated by Gerard Hoet (1648–1733) and others, and published by P. de Hondt in The Hague; image courtesy Bizzell Bible Collection, University of Oklahoma Libraries. ( Public Domain ) Enoch was the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs.

Likewise, the time from the flood to the Exodus amounts to 1777 years in the Septuagint, which matches the time from the twelfth dynasty up until Pharaoh Tutmosis. And finally, the time from the Exodus to the end of the 30th dynasty is 1117 years in both the Septuagint and the extant fragments of Aegyptiaca.

In sum, Rydberg’s paper suggests that the numbers in Genesis 5 were originally an astronomical table, but when Greek calendars made the jubilee calendars obsolete these numbers were used to reconcile the histories of the Hebrews with the Babylonians in the Masoretic text, and with the Egyptians in the Septuagint.

Top Image: ‘Abraham and the Angels’ by Aert de Gelder ( Wikipedia). Abraham was said to have lived to the age of 175.

http://www.ancient-origins.net/history/there-natural-explanation-unnatural-ages-genesis-008590/page/0/1