These False Flags Were Used To Start A War

 

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Just in case one’s history textbook had a few extra pages ripped out, this may be a good time to recall just how far one’s government is willing to go to start a war under false pretenses.

Below is a partial list of some of the documented “false flag” events that were intended and/or served to start a war in recent and not so recent history.

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Franco-Prussian War

Otto von Bismarck waved a “red flag” in front of the “gallic bull” by re-editing a telegram from the Prussian King so that it appeared as though the King had insulted a French ambassador during a time of extremely tense French-German international relations. The telegram is known as the Ems Dispatch. It helped encourage the states to go to war.

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Russo-Swedish War

In 1788, a head tailor of the Royal Swedish Opera received an order to sew a number of Russian military uniforms that later were used in an exchange of gunfire at Puumala, a Swedish outpost on the Russo-Swedish border, on June 27, 1788. The staged attack, which caused an outrage in Stockholm, was to convince the Riksdag of the Estates and to provide the Swedish king Gustav III with an excuse to declare a “defensive” war on Russia. This was important since the king did not have constitutional right to start offensive war without agreement of the estates who had already made clear that their acceptance would not be forthcoming.

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Spanish–American War, i.e, the Sinking of the USS Maine

The sinking of the USS Maine on 15 February 1898 in Havana harbor was initially thought to be caused by an external mine exploded under the ship. This belief roused anti-Spanish sentiment in the United States and helped catalyze the Spanish–American War later that same year. In 1911 an extensive study was made of the wreck, and again an external mine was believed to be the cause. In 1976 a team of naval explosive experts re?examined the earlier evidence and concluded that the likeliest cause of the sinking was an internal explosion caused by spontaneous combustion of fuel coal stored in a bunker next to a magazine holding more than 5 short tons (4.5 t) of powder charges for the guns. Despite this analysis, some observers believe that the explosion was caused by a U.S. agent for the purpose of angering the U.S. populace and initiating the war which followed. Cuban politician and former director of the national library Eliades Acosta claims that “powerful economic interests” in the United States were probably responsible not only for the sinking of the Maine but for the assassination of three 19th-century U.S. presidents, beginning with Abraham Lincoln.

The Mukden incident in September 1931 involved Japanese officers fabricating a pretext for annexing Manchuria by blowing up a section of railway. In fact the explosion was so weak that the line was unaffected. Six years later in 1937 they falsely claimed the kidnapping of one of their soldiers in the Marco Polo Bridge Incident as an excuse to invade China proper.

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Reichstag fire

The Reichstag fire was an arson attack on the Reichstag building in Berlin on 27 February 1933. The fire started in the Session Chamber, and, by the time the police and firemen arrived, the main Chamber of Deputies was engulfed in flames. Police searched the building and found Marinus van der Lubbe, a young, Dutch council communist and unemployed bricklayer who had recently arrived in Germany, ostensibly to carry out political activities.

The fire was used as evidence by the Nazis that the Communists were beginning a plot against the German government. Van der Lubbe and four Communist leaders were subsequently arrested. Adolf Hitler, who was sworn in as Chancellor of Germany four weeks before, on 30 January, urged President Paul von Hindenburg to pass an emergency decree to counter the “ruthless confrontation of the Communist Party of Germany”. With civil liberties suspended, the government instituted mass arrests of Communists, including all of the Communist parliamentary delegates. With their bitter rival Communists gone and their seats empty, the National Socialist German Workers Party went from being a plurality party to the majority; subsequent elections confirmed this position and thus allowed Hitler to consolidate his power.

Historians disagree as to whether Van der Lubbe acted alone, as he said, to protest the condition of the German working class, or whether the arson was planned and ordered by the Nazis, then dominant in the government themselves, as a false flag operation. The responsibility for the Reichstag fire remains an ongoing topic of debate and research.

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The Gleiwitz Incident

The Gleiwitz incident in 1939 involved Reinhard Heydrich fabricating evidence of a Polish attack against Germany to mobilize German public opinion for war, to establish casus belli, and to justify the war with Poland. Alfred Naujocks was a key organiser of the operation under orders from Heydrich. It led to the deaths of innocent Nazi concentration camp victims who were dressed as German soldiers and then shot by the Gestapo to make it seem that they had been shot by Polish soldiers. This, along with other false flag operations in Operation Himmler, would be used to mobilize support from the German population for the start of World War II in Europe.

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Winter War

In 1939 the Red Army shelled Mainila, a Russian town near the Finnish border. Soviet authorities blamed Finland for the attack and used the incident as a pretext to start the Winter War four days later.

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Kassa attack

The Kassa attack in 1941 involved the city of Kassa, today Košice (Slovakia), which was then part of Hungary, being bombed by three unidentified planes of apparently Soviet origin. This attack became the pretext for the government of Hungary to declare war on the Soviet Union.

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Operation Ajax

The replacement of Iran’s Anglo-Persian Oil Company with five American oil companies and the 1953 Iranian coup d’état was the consequence of the U.S. and British-orchestrated false flag operation, Operation Ajax. Operation Ajax used political intrigue, propaganda, and agreements with Qashqai tribal leaders to depose the democratically elected leader of Iran, Mohammed Mosaddeq. Information regarding the CIA-sponsored coup d’etat has been largely declassified and is available in the CIA archives.

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Operation Northwoods

The planned, but never executed, 1962 Operation Northwoods plot by the U.S. Department of Defense for a war with Cuba involved scenarios such as fabricating the hijacking or shooting down of passenger and military planes, sinking a U.S. ship in the vicinity of Cuba, burning crops, sinking a boat filled with Cuban refugees, attacks by alleged Cuban infiltrators inside the United States, and harassment of U.S. aircraft and shipping and the destruction of aerial drones by aircraft disguised as Cuban MiGs. These actions would be blamed on Cuba, and would be a pretext for an invasion of Cuba and the overthrow of Fidel Castro’s communist government. It was authored by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but then rejected by President John F. Kennedy. The surprise discovery of the documents relating to Operation Northwoods was a result of the comprehensive search for records related to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy by the Assassination Records Review Board in the mid-1990s. Information about Operation Northwoods was later publicized by James Bamford.

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Gulf of Tonkin incident

The Gulf of Tonkin incident (or the USS Maddox incident) is the name given to two separate confrontations involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. The first event occurred on August 2, 1964, between the destroyer USS Maddox and three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. The second was originally claimed by the U.S. National Security Agency to have occurred on August 4, 1964, as another sea battle, but instead may have involved “Tonkin Ghosts” (false radar images) and not actual NVN torpedo boat attacks.

The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon B. Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by “communist aggression.” The resolution served as Johnson’s legal justification for deploying U.S. conventional forces and the commencement of open warfare against North Vietnam.

In 2005, an internal National Security Agency historical study was declassified; it concluded that the Maddox had engaged the North Vietnamese Navy on August 2, but that there were no North Vietnamese Naval vessels present during the incident of August 4. The Gulf of Tonkin incident has long been accused of being a false flag operation, but this judgment remains in dispute.

http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2013-09-05/these-false-flags-were-used-start-war

 

 

In American History, A Midnight Rider Goes Unsung…

Paul Revere gets all the glory for his midnight ride​. After all, it’s a stirring tale of patriotism told by a great storyteller.

But one young messenger who called the colonists to arms during a remarkable five-day dash across five states is a mere footnote — a man mentioned in historical documents that didn’t even get his first name right. They called him Trail.

His name was Israel Bissell, and he is one of the Revolutionary War’s most unheralded heroes.

Bissell, a 23-year-old postal rider when the war broke out on April 19, 1775, rode day and night with little sleep during an exhausting 345-mile journey from Boston’s western edge to Philadelphia. On the first leg, he rode one horse so hard that the animal collapsed and died beneath him as he arrived in Worcester, roughly two hours after leaving Watertown.

“To arms, to arms. The war has begun,” Bissell shouted as he passed through each little town.

Dozens of other messengers also raced on horseback to spread the word, making it likely that Revere was a composite of these brave men, said J.L. Bell, a Massachusetts writer who specializes in Revolutionary War-era Boston.

In response to their cries, church bells were rung and muskets were fired: British redcoats were attacking. The American Revolution had begun.

But there were no bells pealing for Israel Bissell, whose ride was obscured in history’s annals by Revere’s 20-mile gallop, which was so greatly amplified by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow. His 11-verse poem, first published in 1861 as “Paul Revere’s Ride,” became familiar to generations of American schoolchildren because it was a more dramatic story:

… So through the night rode Paul Revere

And so through the night went his cry of alarm

To every Middlesex village and farm,

A cry of defiance, and not of fear,

A voice in the darkness, a knock at the door,

And a word that shall echo for evermore!

“Very few people know about poor Israel because Longfellow wasn’t writing a poem about him,” said Kay Westcott, a librarian at the Watertown Free Public Library.

Robert Thompson, a Syracuse University professor of television and popular culture, said the poem marginalized Bissell’s accomplishment and enhanced Revere’s for reasons that have little to do with fact.

“Paul Revere rhymes with a lot more than Israel Bissell,” he said. “And it is one of those poems that gets in your head and won’t let go. It has a meter like the gallop of a horse. It’s like taking the ride yourself.”

History is built on facts, but Thompson noted that facts could be overwhelmed by the fame spawned by culture, art and fiction.

Christopher Columbus has been credited with discovering the Americas despite ample evidence that Vikings reached North America centuries earlier. And men such as Nikola Tesla and Edwin Armstrong pioneered key developments in radio even though Guglielmo Marconi was credited with inventing it.

“History is not filled with people who got overlooked, but that’s because they got overlooked,” Thompson said.

When he set out on his ride, Bissell carried with him a handwritten letter dated April 19, 1775, and signed by Massachusetts militia Gen. Joseph Palmer.

It read: “To all friends of American liberty, be it known that this morning before the break of day, a brigade consisting of about 1,000 or 1,200 men … marched to Lexington, where they found a company of our colony militia in arms, upon whom they fired, without any provocation, and killed 6 men and wounded 4 others. By an express from Boston, we find that another brigade are now upon their march from Boston, supposed to be about 1,000.”

The letter asked those Bissell encountered “to furnish him with fresh horses, as may be needed.”

At each stop along the way, town leaders would keep the document Bissell delivered and hastily transcribe a new version that Bissell would carry to the next city or town. Although Palmer asked Bissell to deliver the news throughout Connecticut, the young messenger pressed ahead.

He arrived on Wall Street in New York City around 4 p.m. on April 23.

Roughly 24 hours later, he reached Philadelphia, where the pealing of what eventually became known as the Liberty Bell drew a crowd of 8,000 who learned that war had begun. By then, the portion of the document bearing Bissell’s name inaccurately listed his first name as Trail.

That document resides today in Philadelphia, in the American manuscripts section of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania.

Bissell made his way back to his home in East Windsor, Conn., eventually joined the army, and served alongside his brother, Justis. After the war, Bissell moved to Middlefield in western Massachusetts, where he bought property and became a sheep farmer. He married Lucy Hancock, and the couple had four children.

He lived his final years in the nearby hamlet of Hinsdale, where his grave is marked by a plain marble stone with the simple inscription, “IN MEMORY of Mr. ISRAEL BISSELL, who died October 24th 1823, Aged Sev’nty One Years.”

Bissell’s plot remained unadorned until 1967, when the Daughters of the American Revolution placed near his headstone a bronze plaque commemorating his participation in the nation’s tumultuous birth.

This Passport Is so Rare, Only 500 People on Earth Have It

 

 

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It’s well-known that some passports are more powerful than others. Take, for example, the German passport, thought of as the most powerful global entry tool on Earth. As Travel + Leisure previously reported, German passport holders can visit 177 countries around the world without needing a visa.

And while being able to visit more countries is cool, what may be even cooler is being a card-carrying member of the world’s most exclusive passport: the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.

 

http://www.travelandleisure.com/travel-tips/customs-immigration/worlds-rarest-passport

According to the Independent, the Catholic order, which had its sovereignty recognized by Pope Paschal in 1113, is home to the world’s rarest passport. In fact, only 500 of these passports are in circulation around the globe right now, according to the Order.

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Diplomatic passports, according to the Sovereign Order of Malta, are granted only to “the members of the Sovereign Council (the government), to heads and members of its Diplomatic Missions (as well as their consort and minor children), and – with very few exceptions – to senior figures in charge of a special missions within the Order of Malta.”

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The passports only remain valid for four years and are strictly linked to the duration of a given assignment by the Order.

The Sovereign Order of Malta maintains diplomatic relations with 106 states, meaning all of these states accept the diplomatic passports as a valid form of identification. The passports even include biometric features and are compliant with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) standards.

Currently, the Sovereign Order of Malta is active in 120 countries, where it helps to care for people in need through its medical, social, and humanitarian works. The Order is especially involved in helping people living in the midst of armed conflicts and natural disasters. It is also a permanent observer status at the United Nations.

Additionally, as the Order noted on its site, “It is neutral, impartial and apolitical.” As the Independent explained, the order is currently made up of over 13,500 knights, dames, and chaplains along with 80,000 permanent volunteers and 25,000 employees, so obtaining one of those 500 coveted passports is even rare among this limited crowd.

 

http://www.msn.com/en-us/travel/news/this-passport-is-so-rare-only-500-people-on-earth-have-it/ar-BBDpYd8?li=BBnb7Kz&ocid=ieslice#image=2