How Britain Tricked a German Battleship into Sinking Itself

The Admiral Graf Spee

Just before he put the gun to his head and pulled the trigger, the German officer penned a final note.

“For a captain with a sense of honor, it goes without saying that his personal fate cannot be separated from that of his ship,” wrote Hans Langsdorff on December 19, 1939, in a hotel room in Buenos Aires. Langsdorff finished his letter to the Nazi ambassador to Argentina, lay down on a German battle flag, and shot himself.

Langsdorff had been the commander of the Admiral Graf Spee, which had been prowling the South Atlantic the week before, and now was resting on the bottom of the harbor at Montevideo, Uruguay. Many a captain has chosen to atone for the loss of his ship by going down with it. Langsdorff had suicide with a pistol two days after he had ordered his ship to be scuttled.

“I can now only prove by my death that the fighting services of the Third Reich are ready to die for the honor of the flag,” he wrote.

But what had led Langsdorff to kill himself? Why meet death in a hotel room instead of at sea? Therein lays one of the most remarkable sea battles of all time: how the Royal Navy bluffed a German battleship into sinking itself.

Of course, the Graf Spee had been born into deception. It was built in the early 1930s, when Hitler pretended to honor the Treaty of Versailles, which limited Germany to warships less than 10,000 tons. With the Graf Spee weighing in at 16,000 tons, the Germans initially gave it the innocuous name of “panzerschiff” (armored ship).

The British had a more ominous—and more accurate—name for the Graf Spee and her sisters Deutschland and Admiral Scheer: “pocket battleships.” Though a third the size of a true battlewagon like the Bismarck, the Deutschland-class ships packed battleship-class eleven-inch guns, rather than the eight-inch guns of a heavy cruiser. The first all-diesel warships, their combination of speed, long range and heavy armament made them ideal raiders to hunt merchant vessels.

When war broke in September 1939, the Graf Spee was dispatched south in search of easy prey in the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean, a vast area made for the long-legged pocket battleship. The Graf Spee‘s career was short but productive, accounting for nine ships totaling 50,000 tons.

Yet the noose was closing as Allied task forces scoured the oceans for the elusive German raider, whose location was marked by the distress calls transmitted by its victims. One of those task forces consisted of the British heavy cruiser HMS Exeter and the light cruisers HMS Achilles and HMS Ajax, all under the command of Commodore Henry Harwood.

HMS Exeter

Based on a message from the Graf Spee‘s last victim, the merchant ship Doric Star which was sunk off South Africa, Harwood shrewdly guessed the raider would sail west toward the River Plate estuary between Argentina and Uruguay. At 06:10 on December 13, 1939, Harwood’s force sighted smoke on the horizon, which turned out to be the Graf Spee. Lindemann had also spotted the British cruisers, but judged them to be destroyers guarding a convoy. Here there would easy pickings for a battleship, he thought until it was too late.

HSM Achilles

The Battle of the River Plate was a battle that should never have happened. The British cruisers with their eight- and six-inch guns steamed at full speed toward a battleship whose eleven-inch guns outranged them, like a boxer with longer arms than his opponent. Yet the Graf Spee also had a glass jaw. With no Axis ports in the South Atlantic, there was no place to seek refuge or repair: if the ship was damaged, it would have to sail 8,000 miles, past the Allied naval blockade of Germany, to reach a German port. In fact, the Graf Speehad been instructed not to engage heavy enemy warships.

HMS Ajax

Nonetheless, in the best naval tradition, Langsdorff ordered full speed and sailed toward the British. Perhaps he had no choice. With his ship and its engines badly in need of maintenance after months at sea, he couldn’t count on escaping the cruisers, which would shadow him while they called in reinforcements.

It was three sharks versus a killer whale in a maelstrom of shell splashes, gun smoke and twisting ships. As with hunting packs, the British ships attacked from different directions to force the Graf Spee to split its fire. When the Graf Spee concentrated on the Exeter, the Achilles and Ajax would close and unleash a salvo to draw the battleship off their sister (both the German and British ships launched torpedoes, none of which hit)

Nonetheless, within the first thirty minutes of the fight, the British were losing. The Exeter had been badly damaged, the heavy cruiser losing two eight-inch gun turrets and with its bridge smashed. The Achilles and Ajax were also hit. With its bigger guns and a speed almost as fast as the cruisers, the German battleship might have finished off its opponents and continued its voyage.

Damaged Exeter

But as so often in battle, the enemy sees a less rosy picture. The battleship had taken a hit from an eight-inch shell that damaged its fuel system so badly that it only had sixteen hours of endurance. Making it back to Germany was impossible, and Lindemann well knew that more Allied warships were on their way. With no Axis ports in the South Atlantic, the only refuge lie in a neutral harbor. The Graf Speelimped toward Montevideo, Uruguay, shadowed by the battered but still feisty British task force.
Yet when the German battleship sailed into the estuary of the River Plate at Montevideo, Lindemann realized that instead of refuge, he had boxed himself into a trap. Under the Hague Convention, a belligerent’s warships were only allowed to remain in a port belonging to a neutral nation for twenty-four hours. And he could see the British warships waiting outside the harbor.

And now came subterfuges worthy of a spy novel. International law also stipulated that before a belligerent’s warship could leave a neutral port, it had to wait at least twenty-four hours after an enemy merchant ship had left that port (thus giving the prospective victim time to get clear). So, Britain and France arranged for their merchant ships to leave Montevideo at intervals to keep the Graf Spee from sailing, while Harwood’s ships made smoke outside the three-mile limit of Uruguayan waters to give the impression of a larger force. With a skill in deception that they would frequently display during World War II, the British spread rumors that an aircraft carrier and battlecruiser were waiting outside the port. In truth, those ships would take several days to arrive from Gibraltar: the only reinforcements the British actually received was the dilapidated old heavy cruiser Cumberland. Even now, with Harwood’s force low on ammunition, the Graf Spee might have been able to escape to neutral but Nazi-sympathizing Argentina.

Yet Lindemann was crushed by contradictory pressures that would have strained any captain. The pro-British Uruguayan government had ordered him to leave or be interned. Berlin ordered that the battleship should not be interned. Seeing no point in sacrificing his crew in what he believed would be a suicidal battle against a superior British force, on December 17, 1939, Lindemann ordered the Graf Spee to be scuttled. Uruguayan authorities allowed the captain and crew to proceed to Buenos Aires, where they discovered the Argentinean press had labeled them cowards and the government intended to intern rather than repatriate them to Germany. Two days later, Lindemann shot himself.

The loss of the Graf Spee was a blow to the prestige of Hitler’s small but expensive navy, for which even the loss of a single heavy warship was significant. Within six months, the Bismarck would join the Graf Spee on the Atlantic sea bed. Within eight months, HMS Exeter would be sunk by the Japanese at the Battle of the Java Sea.

In the Battle of the River Plate, psychology counted as much—and perhaps more—than firepower. The British cruisers had taken a beating, but the Royal Navy’s proud tradition of aggressiveness in the face of daunting odds had paid off yet again. Regardless of who had the bigger guns, in the end, the Germans thought themselves beaten—and the British did not.

And the Graf Spee? She still rests at the bottom of Montevideo harbor. Last year, the Uruguayan government announced it would auction off an artifact recovered from the vessel: a bronze eagle gripping a swastika in its claws. It will be a tawdry ending for an epic battle and a tragic fate.

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Vitamin D Is More Effective Than Flu Vaccine, Study Says

 

 

Conventional health authorities claim getting a flu shot each year is the best way to ward off influenza. But where’s the actual science backing up that claim?

If you’ve repeatedly fallen for this annual propaganda campaign, you may be surprised to find the medical literature suggests vitamin D may actually be a FAR more effective strategy, and the evidence for this goes back at least a decade.

Dr. John Cannell, founder of the Vitamin D Council, was one of the first to introduce the idea that vitamin D deficiency may actually be an underlying CAUSE of influenza.

His hypothesis1 was initially published in the journal Epidemiology and Infection in 2006.2 It was subsequently followed up with another study published in the Virology Journal in 2008.3

The following year, the largest nationally representative study4 of its kind to date discovered that people with the lowest vitamin D levels indeed reported having significantly more colds or cases of the flu.

In conclusion, lead author Dr. Adit Ginde stated:

“The findings of our study support an important role for vitamin D in prevention of common respiratory infections, such as colds and the flu. Individuals with common lung diseases, such as asthma or emphysema, may be particularly susceptible to respiratory infections from vitamin D deficiency.”

Vitamin D Works Better Than Flu Vaccine If Your Levels Are Low

Since then, a number of studies have come to similar conclusions. Most recently, a scientific review5,6 of 25 randomized controlled trials confirmed that vitamin D supplementation boosts immunity and cuts rates of cold and flu.

Overall, the studies included nearly 11,000 individuals from more than a dozen countries. As reported by Time Magazine:7

“… [P]eople who took daily or weekly vitamin D supplements were less likely to report acute respiratory infections, like influenza or the common cold, than those who did not …

“For people with the most significant vitamin D deficiencies (blood levels below 10 [ng/mL]), taking a supplement cut their risk of respiratory infection in half.

“People with higher vitamin D levels also saw a small reduction in risk: about 10 percent, which is about equal to the protective effect of the injectable flu vaccine, the researchers say.”

Like Cannell before them, the researchers believe vitamin D offers protection by increasing antimicrobial peptides in your lungs, and that “[t]his may be one reason why colds and flus are most common in the winter, when sunlight exposure (and therefore the body’s natural vitamin D production) is at its lowest …”8

According to this international research team, vitamin D supplementation could prevent more than 3.25 million cases of cold and flu each year in the U.K. alone.9 Another statistic showing vitamin D is a more effective strategy than flu vaccine is the “number needed to treat” (NNT).

Overall, one person would be spared from influenza for every 33 people taking a vitamin D supplement (NNT = 33), whereas 40 people have to receive the flu vaccine in order to prevent one case of the flu (NNT = 40).

Among those with severe vitamin D deficiency at baseline, the NNT was 4. In other words, if you’re vitamin D deficient to begin with, vitamin D supplementation is 10 times more effective than the flu vaccine.

Optimizing Vitamin D May Be Your Best Defense Against Influenza

In my view, optimizing your vitamin D levels is one of the absolute best flu-prevention and optimal health strategies available.

Your diet also plays a significant role of course, as it lays the foundation for good immune function.

A high-sugar diet is a sure-fire way to diminish your body’s innate ability to fight off infections of all kinds by radically impairing the functioning of your immune system.

However, I do not agree that fortifying more processed foods with vitamin D is the best solution, although I realize it could potentially have a more widespread impact among people who remain unaware of the beneficial health effects of sunlight in general.

I believe sensible sun exposure is the ideal way to optimize your vitamin D. Taking a vitamin D3 supplement is only recommended in cases when you simply cannot obtain sufficient amounts of sensible sun exposure.

It’s also important to point out that, contrary to what’s reported by most mainstream media, including NPR report above, most people cannot optimize their vitamin D levels by getting the recommended 600 IUs of vitamin D from fortified foods.

The dose you need really depends on your current blood level of vitamin D.

If it’s very low, you may need 8,000 to 10,000 IUs of vitamin D3 per day in order to reach and maintain a clinically relevant level of 45 to 60 nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). The only way to know how much you need is to get tested at least once or twice each year.

If you’ve been supplementing for some time and your levels are still below 45 ng/mL, you then know you have to increase your dose further.

If using an oral supplement, also make sure to boost your vitamin K2 and magnesium intake, as these nutrients help optimize vitamin D levels.

Other Studies Supporting Link Between Vitamin D Deficiency and Influenza

In a study published in 2010,10 researchers investigated the effect of vitamin D on the incidence of seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren.

The randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study included 430 children, half of which were given 1,200 IUs of vitamin D3 per day while the other half received a placebo.

Overall, children in the treatment group were 42 percent less likely to come down with the flu.

According to the authors:

“This study suggests that vitamin D3 supplementation during the winter may reduce the incidence of influenza A, especially in specific subgroups of schoolchildren.”

Another study11 published that same year concluded that infection-fighting T-cells need help from vitamin D in order to activate. This is yet another mechanism that helps explain why vitamin D is so effective against infections.

When a T cell recognizes foreign invaders like bacteria or viruses, it sends activating signals to the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene.

The VDR gene then starts producing a protein that binds vitamin D in the T cell. A downstream effect of this is PLC-gamma1 protein production, which subsequently enables the T cell to fight the infection.

At the time, lead researcher Carsten Geisler told Food Consumer:12

“When a T cell is exposed to a foreign pathogen, it extends a signaling device or ‘antenna’ known as a vitamin D receptor, with which it searches for vitamin D.

“This means the T cell must have vitamin D or activation of the cell will cease. If the T cells cannot find enough vitamin D in the blood, they won’t even begin to mobilize.”

With that understanding, it’s no wonder flu shots don’t work. Flu vaccines do absolutely nothing to address the underlying problem of vitamin D deficiency, which is effectively hindering your immune system from working properly.

In fact, flu vaccines tend to deteriorate your immune function, and their side effects can be significant.

‘Gold Standard’ Studies Ignored by Mainstream Media

The gold standard of scientific analysis, the so-called Cochrane Database Review, has also issued several reports between 2006 and 2012, all of which decimate the claim that flu vaccinations are the most effective prevention method available.

In 2010, Cochrane published the following bombshell conclusion, which was completely ignored by mainstream media:13

“Influenza vaccines have a modest effect in reducing influenza symptoms and working days lost. There is no evidence that they affect complications, such as pneumonia, or transmission. WARNING: This review includes 15 out of 36 trials funded by industry (four had no funding declaration).

“An earlier systematic review of 274 influenza vaccine studies published up to 2007 found industry funded studies were published in more prestigious journals and cited more than other studies independently from methodological quality and size. Studies funded from public sources were significantly less likely to report conclusions favorable to the vaccines …”

So, despite the fact that 15 of the 36 studies included were biased by industry interests, they still couldn’t come up with evidence supporting the conventional claim that flu vaccines are the best and most effective prevention available against influenza!

Scientific Reviews Show Vaccinating Children and Elderly Is Ineffective

Cochrane has issued several reports addressing the effectiveness of flu vaccines on infants and the elderly — two groups that tend to be the most targeted by flu vaccine advertising — and all have had negative findings. For children:

1. A large-scale, systematic review14 of 51 studies, published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews in 2006, found no evidence that the flu vaccine is any more effective than a placebo in children under two. The studies involved 260,000 children, age 6 to 23 months.

2. In 2008, another Cochrane review15 again concluded that “little evidence is available” that the flu vaccine is effective for children under the age of two. Even more disturbingly, the authors stated that:

“It was surprising to find only one study of inactivated vaccine in children under two years, given current recommendations to vaccinate healthy children from six months old in the USA and Canada.

“If immunization in children is to be recommended as a public health policy, large-scale studies assessing important outcomes and directly comparing vaccine types are urgently required.”

3. In a 2012 review,16 Cochrane concluded that “in children aged from two years, nasal spray vaccines made from weakened influenza viruses were better at preventing illness caused by the influenza virus than injected vaccines made from the killed virus.

Neither type was particularly good at preventing “flu-like illness” caused by other types of viruses. In children under the age of two, the efficacy of inactivated vaccine was similar to placebo.”

The available evidence with regards to protecting the elderly is equally abysmal.

4. In 2010, Cochrane concluded that:17 “The available evidence is of poor quality and provides no guidance regarding the safety, efficacy or effectiveness of influenza vaccines for people aged 65 years or older.”

5. Cochrane also reviewed whether or not vaccinating health care workers can help protect the elderly patients with whom they work. In conclusion, the authors stated that:18

“[T]here is no evidence that vaccinating health care workers prevents influenza in elderly residents in long-term care facilities.”

Annual Flu Vaccinations May Raise Risk of More Serious Infections

Other recent studies have shown that with each successive annual flu vaccination, the protection afforded by the vaccine appears to diminish.19, 20

Research published in 2014 concluded that vaccine-induced protection against influenza was greatest among those who had NOT received a flu shot in the previous five years.21

The flu vaccine may also increase your risk of contracting other, more serious influenza infections.

  • Data shows people who received the seasonal flu vaccine in 2008 had twice the risk of getting the H1N1 “swine flu” compared to those who didn’t receive a flu shot.22
  • Compared to children who do not get an annual flu vaccine, those who receive influenza vaccinations have a three times higher risk of hospitalization due to influenza.23

Research also shows that statin drugs — taken by 1 in 4 Americans over the age of 45 — may undermine your immune system’s ability to respond to the flu vaccine.24,25,26

When you consider the low efficacy rate of the flu vaccine in any given year, getting vaccinated if you’re on a statin may well be a moot point.

Independent science reviews have also concluded that influenza vaccine does not appear to prevent influenza-like illness associated with other types of viruses responsible for about 80 percent of all respiratory or gastrointestinal infections during any given flu season.27,28,29,30

Other Foods and Supplements That Send Pathogens Packin’

Besides vitamin D, there are a number of other foods and supplements that can be beneficial for colds and influenza, including the following:

Garlic:31 Garlic has natural antiviral, antibiotic and antifungal activity and has long been hailed for its immune boosting effects.

The Cochrane Database, which has repeatedly demonstrated that the science in support of the flu vaccine is flimsy at best, has also reviewed studies on alternatives, including garlic.32

Unfortunately, such research is harder to come by, as there’s no financial incentive driving it.

Still, in the singular study identified by the Cochrane group, those who took garlic daily for three months had fewer colds than those who took a placebo, and, when they did come down with a cold, the duration of illness was shorter — an average of 4.5 days compared to 5.5 days for the placebo group.

While this may not seem overly impressive, it’s still better than the results achieved by the flu drug Tamiflu!

Zinc: A Cochrane Database Review of the medical research on zinc found that when taken within one day of the first symptoms, zinc can cut down the time you have a cold by about 24 hours.

Zinc was also found to greatly reduce the severity of symptoms. Zinc was not recommended for anyone with an underlying health condition, like lowered immune function, asthma or chronic illness.

I do not recommend taking more than 50 mg a day, and I do not recommend taking zinc on a daily basis for preventive purposes as you could easily develop a copper imbalance that way.

Vitamin C: A very potent antioxidant; use a natural form such as acerola, which contains associated micronutrients.

You can take several grams every hour (use the liposomal form so you don’t get loose stools), till you are better. I never travel without a bottle of our liposomal C.

A tea made from a combination of elderflower, yarrow, boneset, linden, peppermint and ginger; drink it hot and often for combating a cold or flu. It causes you to sweat, which is helpful for eradicating a virus from your system.

Oregano Oil: The higher the carvacrol concentration, the more effective it is. Carvacrol is the most active antimicrobial agent in oregano oil.

Medicinal mushrooms, such as shiitake, reishi and turkey tail.

Propolis: A bee resin and one of the most broad-spectrum antimicrobial compounds in the world; propolis is also the richest source of caffeic acid and apigenin, two very important compounds that aid in immune response.

Olive leaf extract is widely known as a natural, non-toxic immune system builder.

Vitamin D Is Important for Optimal Health and Disease Prevention Year-Round

In related news, researchers are also homing in on how vitamin D may help protect against age-related diseases such as Alzheimer’s.

The video above discusses research33 showing vitamin D extends lifespan in nematode worms by 30 percent and helps slow or even reverse accumulation of beta amyloid protein, which is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s.

Vitamin D deficiency has also been linked to heart disease, cancer, diabetes, depression, autoimmune disease and many other chronic diseases. As noted in a recent issue of Orthomolecular Medicine News:34

“Research on the health benefits of vitamin D continues at a rapid pace. There were 4,356 papers published in 2015 with vitamin D in the title or abstract and 4,388 in 2016 …”

Among some of the most impactful studies are ones demonstrating:

Health benefits from sun exposure unrelated to vitamin D production. One recent review concluded benefits of sun exposure includes lower rates of cancer, heart disease, dementia, myopia, macular degeneration, diabetes and multiple sclerosis.

My belief is that the majority of these benefits are due to the near-, mid- and far-infrared wavelengths.

Avoiding the Sun’s Rays is a Misinformed Trend Causing Global Rise in Cancers

According to the author:

“The message of sun avoidance must be changed to acceptance of non-burning sun exposure sufficient to achieve [vitamin D] concentrations of 30 ng/mL or higher … and the general benefits of UV exposure beyond those of vitamin D.”

Also, while intermittent sun exposure is associated with higher rates of skin cancer, “the risks of these cancers is dwarfed by the reduced risk of internal cancers from sun exposure,” William Grant, Ph.D. writes.

Benefits of higher vitamin D levels during pregnancy. Research demonstrates preterm births steadily decrease as vitamin D levels increase among pregnant women. In one study, raising vitamin D blood concentrations from 20 to 40 ng/mL decreased preterm births by 59 percent.

Reduction in cancer risk from vitamin D supplementation. One pooled analysis showed that women with higher levels of vitamin D had much lower incidence rates of cancer — from a 2 percent per year cancer incidence rate at 18 ng/mL to 0.4 percent at 63 ng/mL.

Overall, maintaining a vitamin D serum level of 45 to 60 ng/mL year-round may be one of the simplest and most efficient ways to safeguard yourself against chronic disease and acute infections.

When it comes to seasonal colds and influenza, the rate of protection you get from vitamin D is actually greater than what you’d get from a flu vaccination, and you don’t have to worry about potential side effects either — which in the case of the flu vaccine can be far worse than the original complaint.

While death and complete disability from a flu vaccine may be rare, so is dying from the flu itself. I strongly recommend weighing the risk of suffering a debilitating side effect of the flu vaccine relative to the more likely potential of spending a week in bed with the flu.

Remember, most deaths attributed to influenza are actually due to bacterial pneumonia, and these days, bacterial pneumonia can be effectively treated with advanced medical care and therapies like respirators and parenteral antibiotics.

By Dr. Joseph Mercola

From the author: The existing medical establishment is responsible for killing and permanently injuring millions of Americans, but the surging numbers of visitors to Mercola.com since I began the site in 1997 – we are now routinely among the top 10 health sites on the Internet – convinces me that you, too, are fed up with their deception. You want practical health solutions without the hype, and that’s what I offer.

Sources and References:

9 Ancient Ruins We Still Know Almost Nothing About

 

Much of what we know about ancient cultures today comes from the pictures and written documents left behind.

In some cases, artifacts can leave clues as to who the people were that created ancient monuments that are now ruins, but in other instances, there are more questions than answers.Historians, archaeologists, and geologists have many theories about the ruins on this list, but they are just that: theories. These ancient ruins most hold more questions than answers and in some cases, experts are not even certain that they are man-made.

1. Lake Michigan Stonehenge


In 2007, Mark Holley was scanning the floor of Lake Michigan in search of shipwrecks. Instead he found what some have dubbed to be the Lake Michigan Stonehenge. 40 feet below the surface are large stones arranged in a circular formation.

There is very little known about who built this structure and why it was built. The location of the site has been kept secret in order to follow the wishes of the Traverse Bay American Indian community who seek to preserve the site.

The stones may not look remarkable, but they are almost perfectly aligned with each other. If they were placed by humans, then the circular rock formation would have to date back between 6,000 and 10,000 years.

It was 6,000 years ago that this area of Lake Michigan was dry and served as a home for hunter-gatherers. The reason why some suggest the rock formation may be older than 6,000 years has to do with what was discovered on one of the outer rings of the rock circle.

Divers found carved into a large block of granite a petroglyph that looks like a mastodon. The ancient elephant went extinct 10,000 years ago, so for an ancient human to have carved it, they would have needed to be alive at the same time.

Unfortunately, petroglyph experts are not typically divers and therefore have not been able to view the carving in person. But if it is verified, it only raises more questions, such as how were the ancient people able to carve so deeply and precisely into granite?

The site stands out because it is understood that humans did not have the capacity for structures such as this until they settled down into villages and moved out of the hunter-gather phase.

While there are very few answers about the site it would not be the first formation or the first petroglyph to be found underwater or found in the Lake Michigan area, so it is possible that the formation is real.

2. Japan’s Underwater Ruins

Off the coast of Japan’s Yonaguni island are mysterious rock formations that have led to intense debate among archaeologists and geologists. These large stone structures appear to be large, stepped monoliths.

Some of the ruins have walls that are 33 feet tall and columns that rise to within 8 feet of the surface. There are square shapes and formations that look like figures, such as the turtle and the giant face have convinced some that the formations are man-made.

The argument that the structures are man-made comes from the presence of right angles as part of the structure and the twin megaliths that appear to have been placed there.

Maasaki Kimura, who first discovered the site, says that he had found traces of animal drawings and people in the rocks and a symbol that he believes to be a character from the Kaida script.

Kimura claims that he can identify castles, roads, monuments, and even a stadium in the rock formations. If true this would be astonishing as some date the ruins back 10,000 years.

Others present more conservative estimates of 2,000 to 3,000 years, which would still be an astonishing find and would lead to questions about who could have constructed the ruins. Kimura theorized that the ruins could be part of the mythical lost continent of Mu.

On the other side of the debate are geologists who claim that all of the formations are naturally occurring. Yonaguni is found in an earthquake prone region and earthquakes have been known to cause sandstone to fracture in shapes similar to those found at the ruins.

They believe the roads are just channels in the rock and the vertical formations are just rocks that were horizontal but fell vertical when the rocks below them eroded. Others say it is unusual to see so many of these types of formations in such a small area but there is no definitive evidence that concludes the formations at Yonaguni are indeed man-made.

3. Gobekli Tepe

Gobekli Tepe is an archaeological site that has the potential to completely change how historians and archaeologists understand human history.

It challenges many of the assumptions that were made about hunter-gatherers and what led up to the transition to farming raising livestock. Gobekli Tepe is an ancient site located in Turkey and unlike other ruins on this list, there is no doubt that this one is man-made.

The site was discovered during a survey in 1963 conducted by Istanbul University and the University of Chicago, but it was mostly written off as little more than a medieval burial ground.

In 1994, Klaus Schmidt found the survey information on Gobekli Tepe and decided to take a closer look. Upon arriving at the mound, he recognized that the limestone rocks and slabs had the potential to be more than just gravestone but rather T-shaped pillars.

Excavation began the following year and it was not long before the team uncovered the massive pillars that had been buried beneath the surface.

The site was created by placing a ring of the massive seven-ton stone pillars on the ground. This ring would then be covered with dirt.

Another ring of stone pillars would be placed on top of the dirt and covered. This continued to create a gently sloping mound. The ruins are dated back 11,000 years and were created at a time when the region was only known to have hunter-gatherers.

A structure of this sort would have taken a large number of people working for an extended period. Bones found at the site confirm that whoever built the site did plenty of hunting of wild animals.

This challenges the notion that it was only after hunter-gatherers settled down that they had the manpower and skill to create large structures.

Interestingly enough it was just a few centuries after the construction of Gobekli Tepe that there is evidence of farming and domestication of grain and animals. For some this means that it was the need to create the structure that prompted the hunter-gatherers to settle down.

4. Nan Madol

Nan Madol is an ancient city built atop a coral reef in Micronesia. It is believed to be the only ancient city ever built upon a coral reef, but that is just the beginning of what makes this site fascinating.

To date, no one has figured out how the people who lived here were able to build it, what tools they used to do it, where they got the stone, or even how they were able to lift up the columns used to make the wall.

Construction on the city is believed to have started by the 8th or 9th century with the megalithic architecture starting in 1200 CE. The city was the ceremonial and political seat of the Saudeleur Dynasty which brought together the 25,000 people of Pohnpei.

Pohnpeian legend tells us that Nan Madol was built by twin sorcerers Olisihpa and Olosopha, who used a flying dragon to lift the massive stones.

A single cornerstone of Nandowas, the royal mortuary, is estimated to weigh 50 tons. All the stones moved to the site are estimated to be 750,000 metric tons. An impressive feat for people who had no pulleys, no levers and no metal.

Construction of the site took four centuries as it was built in stages but even over 400 years, 1,850 tons of rock would need to be moved and placed each year. Considering the population was only 25,000 that is a monumental undertaking that has yet to be explained.

The city itself was only meant to house 500 to 1000 people. It was a place of residence for the nobility and ruling chiefs. It was also where commoners who could not be trusted were forced to live so that they could always be watched.

There was no access to fresh water or food for the people of Nan Madol, it all had to be brought to the city by boat. The city became abandoned in the 17th century but was still used for religious ceremonies up until the late 19th century.

5. Puma Punku

Puma Punku is an ancient ruin found in Bolivia that dates back to the 6th century CE. It stands out for a number of reasons, both for its history and for its construction. The site features stonework that is unlike anything of the period.

Precise cuts were made to not only add detail to the ruins but also to precisely fit the massive stone blocks together.

The blocks were cut at exact angles so that they would fit together like a puzzle and not require the use of mortar of any kind. Even centuries later the rocks fit so tightly together that not even a razor blade can slip between them.

The intricate carvings on the rocks with straight lines and angles also stand out. There are no chisel marks of any kind and trying to recreate these cuts with the tools known to be available at the time has yet to be accomplished.

Moving the rocks to the site was even a feat as some weighed as much as 100 tons and were moved from a quarry 60 miles from the site. The ruins exist above the tree line so there were not even any trees to use to make rollers to move the massive blocks.

There is even contention over the dating of the ruins. Some put the ruins at over 10,000 years old, despite the carbon dating. When the Incas conquered the region in the 15th century, they incorporated Puma Punku and the rest of Tiwanku city into their empire.

Puma Punku became a huge part of the Incan culture because it was believed to be the place where Viracocha created the ancestral people of all ethnicities and sent them out to populate the world.

While it is not known for certain, it is theorized that Puma Punku served as a spiritual and religious center.

At its peak Puma Punku and Tiwanaku city supported 400,000 people and had a very extensive infrastructure. By 1000 CE the culture abruptly ended for reasons that are still unknown today.

6. Ggantija

The ruins at Ggantija are the second oldest religious structures in the world, second only to the ruins at Gobekli Tepe.

These temples date back more than 5,500 years which makes them older than the pyramids of Egypt. They are found on the Mediterranean island of Gozo. The temples have become a part of Gozitan folklore which says that the temples were built by giantess.

At the site, there are actually two complete temples and one temple that was abandoned before it was finished. The southernmost temple is the best preserve and the oldest dating back to 3,600 BCE.

The temple’s plan includes five huge apses that still have traces of the plaster that once covered them slinging between the rocks. The temple are arranged in a clover leaf shape. They consist of semi-circular apses connected by a passage down the middle. Today it is believed that the apses would have been covered by roofing.

The building of the temple predates the wheel and metal tools which makes the feat even more impressive. Small round stones were found at the site which have some archaeologists guessing that the small stones were used as ball bearings to transport the massive stones.

Even though the site was discovered in the 17th century very little was done on the site until 1827 when it was cleared of debris.

After the clearing of debris, the site fell into decay and was kept in private hands until 1933 when it was expropriated for public benefit, finally allowing the site to be fully excavated, preserved and studied.

There is still very little known about the site. Findings of animal bones in the apses suggest that it may have been used for animal sacrifice.

A large stone at the entrance with a recess might have been used as a ritual ablution station for purification before anyone could enter the complex. The temple does face to the southeast and the equinox sunrise which adds to the belief it was a religious site.

7. Menorcan Taulas

On the island of Menorca stands a monument with taulas as tall as 3.7 meters. The taulas date back thousands of years to between 1000 BCE and 300 BCE. There is very little known about them or how they were created.

There are numerous theories about the site such as that the stones had religious or astronomical significance. Archaeologist Michael Hoskin has posited the idea that the stones were part of an ancient healing cult.

The island of Menorca is a very small rocky island and it is only 50 km across at its widest point. There are 35 separate stone megaliths found on the small island which makes it a place of great interest for archaeologists.

What continues to intrigue archaeologists is that the stone structures look very similar to those found at Stonehenge in England and Gobekli Tepe in Turkey.

The taulas were built by the Talayotic people who lived on the island since 2000 BCE and thrived on the tiny island until the Romans arrived in 125 BCE.

The people who built the stone megaliths left behind no documentation or information about why they were built which leaves very little for archaeologists to go on. Even the name “taulas” means table in the island’s Catalan language and references how the stone appeared before excavation.

Originally all that could be seen of the megaliths were the flat tops which appeared like tables to the locals.

Some suggest that the taulas were the representation of the ancient God much like the cross is to Christians.

A bronze bull statue found at the site have led some to wonder if the taulas are meant to represent the face of a bull and that the ancients who built the site worshiped a bull god.

Another theory is that the temple was built to be oriented to the Centaurus constellation which support the theory that it was built for the healing cult.

8. Longyou Caves

The Longyou Caves are found near the village of Shiyan Beicun in the Zhejiang province in China. They are believed to date all the way back to 212 BCE during the Qin dynasty. What makes the caves particularly remarkable is that it would have taken a monumental effort to create them but there is no record at all of their construction or existence.

The caves were first found in 1992 and that is the first that anyone had ever heard of the mysterious caves. Since the initial discovery 24 caves have been found and one of them is now a tourist attraction.

The caves are located at Phoenix Hill. They are carved into sandstone and are massive for being completely man-made caves. There average floor space of the caves is 1,000 square meters (11,000 square feet). The height of the caves is also substantial reached up to 30 meters (98 feet) and the total covered area is 30,000 square meters (320,000 square feet).

Throughout the caves are pillars that are evenly spaced in order to support the ceiling. The walls, ceiling and columns are decorated with parallel chisel marks. There are also carvings that depict animals such as a horse, fish and bird.

It has been estimated that just to dig out the tunnels would take 1,000 people working around the clock for six years. Added to that the care and precision of the sculpting and the carvings inside the caves would add years to its construction.

The caves are also remarkably preserved. There is no sign of rubble or debris and the carvings are still completely clear and precise. Despite the excellent condition of the caves there remains no evidence of who could have built them.

Only someone like an emperor could have commissioned such a massive project but then there is no explanation for why there would be no record of such a project in the historical records. There is also no explanation for why the caves were built or what they were used for.

Related: 10 Amazing Caves of the Ancient World

9. Underground Italian Pyramids at Orvieto

The Italian city of Orvieto has long been known as a place to view medieval ruins but just recently it has become the focus of archaeologists for another reason. In 2011 it was discovered that there are ruins underneath the city that date back to the Etruscans.

The Etruscans were a sophisticated culture that existed in Italy around 900 BCE. The society would eventually blend into the Roman empire which makes it harder for archaeologists to fully understand their culture today.

Archeologists have been able to excavate 15 meters (49 feet) down to uncover underground pyramids. The site had been intentionally backfilled for reasons that have yet to be understood.

The fill material has been a boon for finding artifacts from the 5th century BCE when the pyramids must have been filled.

What has been of particular interest to archeologists is the number of Etruscan language inscriptions that have been found, more than 150. This could lead to a greater understanding of the Etruscans.

It is believed that there are at least five pyramids below the city but only two of them have started to be excavated.

The process is very slow and painstaking as artifacts need to be preserved and the site itself must be protected as archeologists dig further down. There are still no answers as to the purpose of the pyramids. It is clear that it was not a quarry because the walls are too smooth and precise.

Researchers also do not know why the pyramids were built or what they were used for. Theories about whether they are religious structures or tombs continue but there has been no definitive evidence to point in either direction as of.

Claudio Bizzarri who works at the site believes that they will only find the answer at the bottom of the caverns but no one knows just how far down they will have to dig to get there.

The UN’s Plan to Halt Population Growth by Turning Nature Against Us

 

 

Business as usual at the United Nations includes plans to subvert fertility and increase mortality

by Christina Sarich, Waking Times

The United Nations has been planning a depopulation agenda for decades according to many ‘conspirators’, but few have been able to describe so clearly, just what that plan entails, until now.

Even with open admission from the UN’s Executive Secretary of the Framework Convention on Climate Change, Christiana Figueres, that depopulation is part of the ‘green’ agenda to save the planet from global warming – an agenda one should adopt cautiously before jumping aboard its trains of doom – many have called the depopulation idea quackery.

If a plan to subvert fertility and increase mortality among all the world’s citizenry, ‘quacks,’ then those naysayers can have their day, but a different picture becomes clear when looking at facts the UN would likely not want circulated.

“Greg Dalton, founder of Climate One: A related issue is fertility rates and population, a lot of people in energy and environmental circles don’t want to go near that because its politically charged, it’s not their issue, but isn’t it true that stopping the rise in population could be one of the biggest levers in driving down the rising green houses gases.

“Christiana Figueres, UN: We all know, we expect 9 billion by 2050, so yes obviously less people would exert less pressure on the natural resources.”

Overcrowding vs. Overpopulation

First, the overpopulation issue is used often by those who want an excuse to cull the masses. Overpopulation describes a situation where the number of people exhausts the resources in a closed environment such that it can no longer support that population.

In a closed environment – that means one which relies on keeping people in poverty, using fossil fuels, and by dumping every possible toxic poison and chemical possible where people must live, wash, breathe, and reproduce.

The overpopulation argument also simply blames people’s numbers for the problems we collectively face instead of holding individuals and groups (like corporations who largely are running the UN) accountable for their actions.

The ‘We Don’t Have Enough Food’ Lie

The lie, for example, that there isn’t enough food comes from a notorious ‘over-population’ man, the father, you might say, of the Bill and Melinda Gates eugenics plan, and quite the pessimist – Thomas Malthus.

He believed in the 1800s that the world was doomed if it out-populated its food sources, but we have numerous scholarly articles proving that we waste several hundreds of tons of food every year, and though biotech engineers promised genetically modified organisms would save us, they don’t produce more food to solve this ‘fake’ crisis.

According to a recent report by the World Resources Institute (WRI), about one-third of all food produced worldwide, worth around US$1 trillion, gets lost or wasted in food production and consumption systems.

We do, in fact, produce 17 percent more food per person alive today than we did 30 years ago. The real problem is getting all this food to the people who need it and the greed which would keep people hungry, thirsty, and imprisoned with poverty.

The ‘We Don’t Have Enough Water’ Lie

The same is true of the ‘we don’t have enough water’ myth. Sure, if you want to privatize water and make it a commodity, then there certainly isn’t enough – again its about utilizing resources effectively.

The world, if you hadn’t noticed, is sitting on loads of water. It’s called an ocean. There are multiple oceans, too.

This is a humanitarian issue, not an overpopulation issue. Aside from the fact that companies like Nestle are pumping our aquifers and lakes and then selling it back to people living in drought conditions, there is plenty of water.

We could keep allowing a single corporation to steal 80 million gallons of water from one city per year and then sell it back to them, or we could create water capture infrastructure, like this man did in India to get fresh water to 10,000 people, or use desalinization, and water conservation.

The Gates’ don’t have a patent on the idea that the world needs fewer people, but they are certainly helping to promote it.

The first thorough exposition of eugenics was made by Francis Galton, who in Hereditary Genius (1869) proposed that a system of arranged marriages between ‘men of distinction’ and ‘women of wealth’ would eventually produce a gifted race.

This sounds like Illuminati talk if you ask me. Nonetheless, the American Eugenics Society, founded in 1926, still has a hold over ‘leaders’ in today’s world.

Bill Gates himself has admitted it “is unusual for a member of the philanthropic sector to be given the opportunity to address heads of state at the United Nations,” yet his influence, among other Malthusians is great.

Subvert Fertility Promote Morbidity

Founder and Director of the Center for Global Consciousness, Kevin Galale writes that the UN’s ‘sustainable development goals’ are nothing more than a collection of contradictions, absurdities and inconsistencies. We face more ‘pandemics’ than ever, and the fertility rates of the poorest nations are in decline.

As Galale states[1]:

“…we are led to believe by an international system that relies on health threats to manufactured fear that is then capitalized on to manufacture pesticides, drugs and vaccines that have a dual purpose: heal or protect against a particular infectious disease while at the same time induce sterility and/or increase morbidity, as the need may be.”

For example: A comparison of the 1985 with the 2016 map of global epidemics suggests that the explosion of infectious threats around the world in the past three decades cannot possibly be the result of nature gone haywire.

He states appropriately:

“Six decades later, we find ourselves dying, both literally and figuratively, in a dystopian and alienating society anchored in totalitarian and dehumanizing institutions that are empowered to commit Orwellian abuses and free to ignore Kafkaesque absurdities birthed by giant and global bureaucracies that are fiercely protected by the tacit support of the world’s spiritual leaders, the implicit collusion of nearly every government on the planet, and the active involvement of an ever-growing and ever-more intrusive military-industrial complex to be able to continue to pursue desirable and constructive social outcomes through undesirable and destructive acts of structural violence.”

And should you peruse the many charts showing reproductive rates in this epic paper, “Turning Nature Against Man: The Role of Pandemics Vaccines and Genetics in the UN’s Plan to Halt Population Growth,” you will likely stand, mouth gaping, at the facts.

Pregnant women who are supposed to take H1N1 influenza vaccines, are just the very scary beginning.

Add to these charts the manufactured Zika virus, bird flu, countless vaccinations, aims to weaken religious objections to family planning, forced sterilization, global geoengineering program that sprays millions of tons of metal oxides in the upper atmosphere supposedly to prevent global warming, deforestation plans, genetically modified food sprayed with enough toxic chemicals to choke Godzilla, and the skyrocketing rates of cancer, endocrine disease, diabetes, etc., and it seems quite obvious what the UN ‘peace-keepers’ are really up to.

Now that you know, its time to do something about it. SPREAD THE WORD, and if you have the time, read this amazing paper that outlines everything I’ve written here in much greater detail.

“We have shut down their ability to commit genocide by turning man against man through the misuse of the institutions of state, concealment of vital information, abuse of the rule of law, perversion of science, and falsification of facts.”

References: [1] Galalae K (2016) Turning Nature against Man: The Role of Pandemics, Vaccines and Genetics in the UN’s Plan to Halt Population Growth. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale) 6: 232.  doi: 10.4172/2161-1165.10002 http://www.omicsonline.org

Was the Philadelphia Experiment the Opening of Pandora’s Box?

Long ago, in the distant 1943 a ship named “USS Eldridge” was about to be tested by The US Navy.

Great minds like Albert Einstein had part in the experiment which included his Unified Field Theory (this theory is uniting the fields of electromagnetism and gravity into one field, in other words if light were bent, then space-time would be bent, effectively creating an invisible time machine).

Everything was set for the test, the crew was on the boat, 2 massive Tesla Coils run through the ship, a couple of magnetic generators were installed and everything seemed normal, well as normal as it gets for crazy scientists. But then, everything went… well, let’s just say bizarre.

I’ll get back to the insanity but let me first explain what the test was about. The US Navy wanted to create a special boat that had magnetic invisibility, radar invisibility, optical invisibility, pretty much every invisibility there is.
 There was a theory Nikola Tesla finished in 1943 shortly before he died and the theory was some kind of a “Unified Field Theory”. With this theory it was possible to use a large Tesla Coil and make things disappear creating an exact replica that comes into being a short distance away (The movie “The Prestige” makes a reference of this).


This was unknown and kept in secret by every member of the experiment until Morris K. Jessup, an astronomer and former graduate-level researcher, published The Case for the UFO.

If you think this book reviled the secrets of the Philadelphia experiment, then you are wrong. This book had not a single thing about the experiment or its secrets. So what part did this book played?

It was a man, a mystery man calling himself “Carlos Allende” who saw the book and decided that Morris K. Jessup was a man who could understand him, someone who would listen to what he has to say without picturing him in a straitjacket.

So, Carlos contacted our guy Morris by writing him a good old fashioned letter. In the letter he described the horror that really happened in the “Philadelphia Experiment” and explained that he saw everything from the “SS Andrew Furuseth”, a nearby merchant ship where he was serving at the time.

According to Allende, Einstein had developed the Unified Field Theory, but had suppressed it, since mankind was not ready for it, a confession that the scientist shared with the mathematician, philosopher and his dear friend Bertrand Russell.

When Morris tried to contact Mister Carlos the reply arrived a couple of months later by correspondent identifying himself as “Carl M. Allen”. Because of safety measures Morris terminated communication with this new “Carl” guy.

That was how the truth about “The Philadelphia Experiment” came out from the “closet”, but what really happened on that ship. The thing I am going to describe is beyond the wildest imagination. It is crazy, I mean “Fringe” meeting “The Outer Limits” crazy.

As I said everything was ready and normal and then the scientists pushed the button starting the generators and transferring electric energy through the Tesla Coils that run through the ship. As the electromagnetic field increased in strength, it began to extend as far as 100 yards out from the ship in all directions, forming a large sphere and making the ship fuzzy. Greenish fog started to surround the ship.

No screams were heard by the crew on the ship. Suddenly the ship vanished, not just from the view, but from Philadelphia all together. To make things even stranger, the ship appeared several hundred miles at Norfolk, Virginia, staying there for couple of minutes and then reappearing in Philadelphia again.

The ship was “un-synced” from This Universe which is why it was able to travel from Philly to Virginia and back instantly but that was not the horror “Carlos” described. Some members of the crew were disoriented; others were “basket cases”.

Strangely a couple of the members were missing – “Just like They Have Been Erased From Time Itself”. However, the most disturbing view was seeing some of the crew members embedded in the bulkheads, decks and railings of the ship. They were alive and literally a part of the ship.

A lot of them were killed instantly, some were taken for experimenting, and others were taken and locked into asylums. Some survivors, who were alive and as fine as you can be after such trauma, reported blacking out from a couple of minutes to a couple of hours.

Rumors have been heard that some men entered into what was called the “Freeze”. This is where men faded from view, unable to move, speak or otherwise affect their surroundings. Interestingly enough, invisible crewmen were still visible to other sailors who had survived the original experiment.

After a while, the Freeze effect lasted for days or months, and became known as the “Deep Freeze” driving crewmen crazy. The only way men were able to recover from the “Deep Freeze” was by other crewmen performing a “Laying on of Hands” technique. Unfortunately, two men burst into flames while Laying on of Hands, burning for 18 days despite all attempts to quench the fire. [1]

I know, this sounds like somebody had a little too much free time and a wild imagination but this is strange even for the wildest imagination and exactly that fact proves that this might be true. Even if all of this is 90% false and just a fantasy story, that 10% is still frightening.

And think about this, if 50 years ago people were experimenting with Time Travel, Unified Field Theory, and Teleportation, what are they experimenting with today. Even though, this sounds bizarre and sci-fi it is all theoretically possible and this experiment was just the beginning of human manipulation with electromagnetic fields.

After “The Philadelphia Experiment” ended, “The Phoenix Project” started culminating with “The Montauk Project” in 1980s at Camp Hero or Montauk Air Force Station on Montauk, Long Island for the purpose of developing psychological warfare techniques and exotic research including time travel.

According to astrophysicist and UFO researcher Jacques Vallée, the Montauk Experiment stories seem to have originated with the account of Preston Nichols, who claimed to have recovered repressed memories of his own involvement. [2]

Many believe in the story of “Carlos Allende” and many see it as a plot to a sci-fi movie. Be that as it may, “The Philadelphia Experiment” showed just how powerful electromagnetic manipulation can be and maybe it even created the anomaly of “The Bermuda Triangle”.

It was for sure an opening of Pandora’s Box in terms of science and as much as we want to know what really happened we can never be 100% sure. All that we can is believe in what we find to be mostly true and fill up the blanks with our imagination.

 By Dejan Davchevski, HumansAreFree.com; | References:


1. Vallée, Jacques F. (1994). “Anatomy of a Hoax: The Philadelphia Experiment Fifty Years Later”. Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol. 8 , No. I , pp. 47-71, 1994. Retrieved on 2010-01-13 from – http://www.scientificexploration.org/journal/jse_08_1_vallee.pdf;
2.http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/montauk/rainbow/philadelphia_experiment.htm;

Dejan Davchevski is an International Marketing Manager, though his passion is sharing a way of living that he calls ‘The Code Of Life.’ He discovered ‘the code’ while he was in a dark period of his life and it helped him recover. You can contact Dejan on his Facebook page or website.

 http://humansarefree.com/2013/11/was-philadelphia-experiment-opening-of.html?utm_campaign=shareaholic&utm_medium=google_plus&utm_source=socialnetwork

CIA Has Interfered With Over 81 Foreign Elections in the Past Century

 

This number doesn’t include military coups and regime change efforts following the election of candidates the U.S. didn’t like, notably those in Iran, Guatemala and Chile.

The CIA has accused Russia of interfering in the 2016 presidential election (with absolutely zero evidence) by hacking into Democratic and Republican computer networks and selectively releasing emails.

But critics might point out the U.S. has done similar things.

The U.S. has a long history of attempting to influence presidential elections in other countries – it’s done so as many as 81 times between 1946 and 2000, according to a database amassed by political scientist Dov Levin of Carnegie Mellon University.

That number doesn’t include military coups and regime change efforts following the election of candidates the U.S. didn’t like, notably those in Iran, Guatemala and Chile. Nor does it include general assistance with the electoral process, such as election monitoring.

Levin defines intervention as “a costly act which is designed to determine the election results [in favor of] one of the two sides.”

These acts, carried out in secret two-thirds of the time, include funding the election campaigns of specific parties, disseminating misinformation or propaganda, training locals of only one side in various campaigning or get-out-the-vote techniques, helping one side design their campaign materials, making public pronouncements or threats in favor of or against a candidate, and providing or withdrawing foreign aid.

In 59% of these cases, the side that received assistance came to power, although Levin estimates the average effect of “partisan electoral interventions” to be only about a 3% increase in vote share.

The U.S. hasn’t been the only one trying to interfere in other countries’ elections, according to Levin’s data.

Russia attempted to sway 36 foreign elections from the end of World War II to the turn of the century – meaning that, in total, at least one of the two great powers of the 20th century intervened in about 1 of every 9 competitive, national-level executive elections in that time period.

Italy’s 1948 general election is an early example of a race where U.S. actions probably influenced the outcome.

“We threw everything, including the kitchen sink” at helping the Christian Democrats beat the Communists in Italy, said Levin, including covertly delivering “bags of money” to cover campaign expenses, sending experts to help run the campaign, subsidizing “pork” projects like land reclamation, and threatening publicly to end U.S. aid to Italy if the Communists were elected.

Levin said that U.S. intervention probably played an important role in preventing a Communist Party victory, not just in 1948, but in seven subsequent Italian elections.

Throughout the Cold War, U.S. involvement in foreign elections was mainly motivated by the goal of containing communism, said Thomas Carothers, a foreign policy expert at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

“The U.S. didn’t want to see left-wing governments elected, and so it did engage fairly often in trying to influence elections in other countries,” Carothers said.

This approach carried over into the immediate post-Soviet period.

In the 1990 Nicaragua elections, the CIA leaked damaging information on alleged corruption by the Marxist Sandinistas to German newspapers, according to Levin.

The opposition used those reports against the Sandinista candidate, Daniel Ortega. He lost to opposition candidate Violeta Chamorro.

In Czechoslovakia that same year, the U.S. provided training and campaign funding to Vaclav Havel’s party and its Slovak affiliate as they planned for the country’s first democratic election after its transition away from communism.

“The thinking was that we wanted to make sure communism was dead and buried,” said Levin.

Even after that, the U.S. continued trying to influence elections in its favor.

In Haiti after the 1986 overthrow of dictator and U.S. ally Jean-Claude “Baby Doc” Duvalier, the CIA sought to support particular candidates and undermine Jean-Bertrande Aristide, a Roman Catholic priest and proponent of liberation theology.

The New York Times reported in the 1990s that the CIA had on its payroll members of the military junta that would ultimately unseat Aristide after he was democratically elected in a landslide over Marc Bazin, a former World Bank official and finance minister favored by the U.S.

The U.S. also attempted to sway Russian elections. In 1996, with the presidency of Boris Yeltsin and the Russian economy flailing, President Clinton endorsed a $10.2-billion loan from the International Monetary Fund linked to privatization, trade liberalization and other measures that would move Russia toward a capitalist economy.

Yeltsin used the loan to bolster his popular support, telling voters that only he had the reformist credentials to secure such loans, according to media reports at the time.

He used the money, in part, for social spending before the election, including payment of back wages and pensions.

In the Middle East, the U.S. has aimed to bolster candidates who could further the Israeli-Palestinian peace process.

In 1996, seeking to fulfill the legacy of assassinated Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and the peace accords the U.S. brokered, Clinton openly supported Shimon Peres, convening a peace summit in the Egyptian resort of Sharm el Sheik to boost his popular support and inviting him to a meeting at the White House a month before the election.

“We were persuaded that if [Likud candidate Benjamin] Netanyahu were elected, the peace process would be closed for the season,” said Aaron David Miller, who worked at the State Department at the time.

In 1999, in a more subtle effort to sway the election, top Clinton strategists, including James Carville, were sent to advise Labor candidate Ehud Barak in the election against Netanyahu.

In Yugoslavia, the U.S. and NATO had long sought to cut off Serbian nationalist and Yugoslav leader Slobodan Milosevic from the international system through economic sanctions and military action.

In 2000, the U.S. spent millions of dollars in aid for political parties, campaign costs and independent media. Funding and broadcast equipment provided to the media arms of the opposition were a decisive factor in electing opposition candidate Vojislav Kostunica as Yugoslav president, according to Levin.

“If it wouldn’t have been for overt intervention… Milosevic would have been very likely to have won another term,” he said.

Aftershocks Of Iran’s 1953 Coup Still Felt Around The World, 65 Years Later

 

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Sixty five years ago, Iranian military officers backed by U.S. and British intelligence agencies initiated a coup d’etat whose aftershocks can still be felt around the globe.

The coup toppled Iran’s first democratically elected government and its popular prime minister, Mohammad Mossadegh, and is widely credited with fueling the hostility against the West that culminated decades later with the 1979 Islamic Revolution.

But the events that played out over a five-day period from August 15-19 reverberated far beyond Iran’s borders. The coup altered the geopolitical landscape in the Middle East, became a blueprint for a succession of covert U.S. efforts to foster coups and destabilize governments in the ’50s, and provided the Soviet Union with ideological ammunition during the Cold War.

The theory, disputed by some, was that the CIA and Britain’s MI6 masterminded the coup to maintain control over Iranian oil and to prevent Tehran from falling under Soviet influence after World War II.

Mossadegh played a prominent role in Iran’s 1951 move to nationalize its oil industry, which had long been controlled by Britain. The decision led to a worldwide boycott of Iranian oil intended to rein in Mossadegh’s government, but when that failed a secret plan was devised to oust him.

The replacement of Mossadegh with a handpicked prime minister, General Fazlollah Zahedi, opened the way for Iran’s relatively weak shah to gain nearly absolute power within Iran’s constitutional monarchy.

With strong military and economic backing from Washington, Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi would take on the role of autocrat until the Islamic Revolution in 1979.

As for Mossadegh himself, he was arrested and convicted of treason, along with scores of government officials, after the coup. He served three years in jail before living under house arrest until his death in 1967.

Lingering Coup

Stephen Kinzer, the author of “All The Shah’s Men: An American Coup And The Roots of Middle East Terror,” sees the coup as a short-term victory for Washington. But in the long-term, he says, Washington’s intervention in Iran would prove detrimental to its standing in Iran.

Mossadegh was named "Time" magazine's Person of the Year in 1953.

Mossadegh was named “Time” magazine’s Person of the Year in 1953.

“From the perspective of history, the coup was not successful for the United States,” Kinzer says. “The 1979 revolution was a long-term effect of the increasing repression from the shah, who came to power as a result of the coup. That Islamic Revolution brought to power a fanatically anti-American regime that has spent more than 30 years working to undermine American interests all over the world.”

Sixty years on, the coup continues to loom large in Iran’s national psyche and remains a thorn in the country’s relations with the West.

Mark Gasiorowski, author of “Mohammad Mosaddeq And The 1953 Coup In Iran,” says the removal of Mossadegh paved the way for two political trends — radical Islamists led by Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini and radical leftists in the form of the militant Mujahedin-e Khalq — to gain ground in the decades after the coup.

“What the coup did was to take out the moderate, secular, element of Iranian politics and enabled radical Islamists and radical leftists to emerge as key opposition factions in place of it [in the 1960s and ’70s],” Gasiorowski says. “The coup had this big impact of essentially eliminating this pro-democracy faction and that had a very important impact on Iranian politics in the intervening years.”

Regional Repurcussions

Gasiorowksi, a professor of political science at Tulane University in New Orleans, says that to many in Iran the coup proved Washington’s duplicity. The United States, which portrayed itself as the guardian of freedom, was seen as resorting to nefarious means to get rid of a democratically elected government to suit its own strategic interests.

Gasiorowski says the ’53 coup had major regional repercussions as well. He says Iran became a key part of the U.S. strategy of containing the Soviet Union in the region, thereby further underpinning the Middle East as a key battleground of the Cold War.

Had the Iran operation not succeeded, the idea of covert operations that became such an integral part of American foreign policy during the 1950s and beyond might not have seemed so appealing.
Author Stephen Kinzer

“The coup really reinforced the Cold War polarization of the region,” he says. “Of course, that’s the reason the United States did it. They did because they were afraid of communist influence in Iran, and they wanted to make Iran, along with Turkey and Pakistan, into a battleship to oppose the Soviet Union.”

In response, the Soviet Union escalated its own activities in the region, providing aid and arms to governments in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Libya, and a host of other states in the Middle East and North Africa.

Kinzer, an award-winning journalist who teaches at Boston University, says the Iranian coup was a milestone for the upstart CIA, which was established in 1947. He says the 1953 coup, which was the agency’s first major successful overthrow of a foreign government, became a template for the future.

“Had the Iran operation not succeeded, the idea of covert operations that became such an integral part of American foreign policy during the 1950s and beyond might not have seemed so appealing,” he says.

Following the 1953 coup in Iran, the CIA orchestrated the successful Guatemalan coup one year later, failed to oust Syria’s president in 1957; and suffered a black eye backing the unsuccessful military invasion of Cuba in 1961.

For decades, the United States denied playing any part in the Iranian coup. But that position ended in 2009 when President Barack Obama acknowledged Washington’s role.

In Britain, meanwhile, the government-funded BBC provided details in 2011 of how it broadcast anti-Mossadegh programs to undermine his government.

Secret files and memoirs of CIA operatives show that the CIA played a pivotal role in initiating and planning Operation Ajax, as the covert operation to oust Mossadegh was called.

 

https://www.rferl.org/a/iran-coup-mossadegh-cia-60th-anniversary/25076552.html