Experts are now wondering: are giants more than just myth after all?
Did Giants Ever Exist?
In the search for proof that giants existed, people have traditionally exaggerated with unfounded stories and tales.
Nevertheless, the controversial discoveries of skeletons measuring 7 feet to more than 9 feet tall, along with other artifacts, have suggested to some that truth inspired these legends.
Interestingly, American president Abraham Lincoln once stated, inspired by viewing Niagara Falls:
“The eyes of that species of extinct giants, whose bones fill the mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now.
“Contemporary with the whole race of men, and older than the first man, Niagara is strong, and fresh today as 10,000 years ago.”
Apparently, Lincoln believed in the existence of giants, but was he right?
A new study says yes; well, kind of (not the kind of giants most of us would imagine).
A selection of newspaper clippings reporting on discoveries of giant skeletons. Credit: Hugh Newman
Not the Kind of Giant You Might Imagine
Live Science reports that as part of a study-in-progress on mummies, scientists have been closely examining a skeleton found in 1901 in a tomb near Beit Khallaf in Egypt.
Previous research estimated that the bones dated from the Third Dynasty of Egypt, about 2700 BC. The initial analysis of the skeleton indicated that it belonged to Sa-Nakht, a pharaoh during the Third Dynasty.
The only two evidences about his existence are found in two seal fragments, which were excavated from Wadi Maghareh, located in the Sinai Peninsula region.
Egypt Travel Experts, Ask Aladdin, reported that the skeletal remains “of a very large-sized man” believed to be Sa-Nakht, were found in mastaba tomb K2 in Beit Khallaf, a small village of Mille Egypt.
Sa-Nakht was a notably tall man for his time, as he was around 6’2 (1.87m) tall.
Previous studies on ancient Egyptian mummies have shown that the average height for men back then was around 5’6 (1.68m), according to the study’s co-author Michael Habicht, an Egyptologist at the University of Zurich’s Institute of Evolutionary Medicine.
Of course, most ancient Egyptian royals were better fed and in better health than everyday Egyptians, so they would normally grow taller and live longer than the Egyptian commoners.
However, the nearly 6’2 remains of Sa-Nakht the scientists re-examined recently are almost five inches longer than the remains of Ramsses II, the tallest recorded ancient Egyptian pharaoh, who lived more than a millennium after Sa-Nakht and was only about 5’9 (1.75m) tall, as Habicht told Live Science.
Sa-Nakht May Have Suffered from Gigantism
Scientists who studied Sa-Nakht’s skeleton now believe that he had a condition known as gigantism, which occurs when the body produces too much growth hormone.
In most cases, this occurs because of a tumor on the pituitary gland of the brain. Habicht and his colleagues have concluded that Sa-Nakht probably suffered from gigantism after they reanalyzed the alleged skull and bones of Sa-Nakht,
“The skeleton’s long bones showed evidence of ‘exuberant growth,’ which are clear signs of gigantism,” Habicht tells Live Science.
And added, “Studying the evolutionary development of diseases is of importance for today’s medicine.”
If their diagnosis is correct, the alleged Sa-Nakht would be the oldest known palaeopathological case of gigantism in the world.
The Kashmir giants, who suffered from a more severe form of gigantism (CC by SA 4.0)
Of course, no one would describe a 6’2 human as a giant nowadays, so the definition the scientists give to describe Sa-Nakht is not compatible with what we would consider a giant today, but is based on his diagnosis of gigantism.
In fact, he probably wouldn’t have been tall enough to make a basketball team today – a typical NBA center stands in the 7-foot range!
The scientists detailed their findings in the August issue of the journal The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology.
Archaeologists and other scientists have been scratching their heads trying to figure out how remarkable ancient Peruvian structures like Sacsayhuamán were constructed.
This marvelous structure consists of gigantic stones so heavy that our modern machinery can hardly move and put in place.
Does the key to the puzzle lie in a certain very specific plant that gave the ancient Peruvians possibility to soften stone or is the answer to the mystery access to advanced ancient technology that could melt stone?
According to researchers Jan Peter de Jong , Christopher Jordan Jesus Gamarra, the granite walls in Cuzco show evidence of being heated to a very high degree and vitrified- the outside surface becoming glassy and very smooth.
Based on this observation, Jong, Jordan and Gamarra draw the conclusion that “some sort of high tech device was used to melt stone blocks which were then placed and allowed to cool next to hard, jigsaw-polygonal blocks that were already in place.
Researchers Jong and Jordan propose that several ancient civilizations world-wide were familiar with the high-tech melting of stone technology. They also say that “the stones on some of the ancient streets in Cuzco have been vitrified by some high temperature to give them their characteristic glassy texture. Read more
The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni inMalta has special significance due to its remarkable acoustic properties. The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni is an underground cave system covering around 500m² on 3 levels, with various inter-connecting corridors and passageways that lead to a number of small chambers, built between 3000-2500BC. The cave system was re-discovered in 1902 and since then there has been particular interest in one of the rooms, named the “Oracle Chamber”. With its ceilings intact, the underground structure holds secrets of a strange play of sound in the stone rooms and halls; a “forgotten” technology which operates on the human emotional sphere. The space is said to amplify voices dramatically, with certain frequencies resonating enough to be felt through the body.
The Hal Saflieni hypogeum has a dark history. Researchers have discovered the hypogeum of Hal Saflieni contained the bodies of over 7,000 people, a ‘speaking chamber’, trilithons, lintelled-doorways, a large cistern and a ‘holy of holies’ surrounded by ’embryonic’ chambers. What experiments were conducted in this bizarre and mysterious place? Read more
This amazing artifact clearly shows that our ancestors were far ahead of their time. In fact they were so advanced that they may even have been inventors of what we today call nanotechnology.
This extraordinary cup is the only surviving complete example made from dichroic glass, which changes colour when held up to the light. When light is shone through the body of the cup it turns from opaque green to a glowing translucent red. The glass contains tiny amounts of colloidal gold and silver, which give it these unusual optical properties. Read more
Another good example revealing our ancestors were familiar with nanotechnology are the strange microscopically small nanospirals within material that had to be at least 100,000 years old have been detected in several places, during a routine investigation of mineral deposits in the Ural Mountains in 1992.
The origin of these extraordinary but strange artifacts that the human eye can barely see – is still not explained. Read more
A small, undecorated artifact with rather plain appearance, is believed by some scientists to be an example of a prehistoric, electrical power source. It’s the so-called Baghdad Battery, also known as the Parthian Battery.
The artifact – thought to be a 2,000-year-old electric battery – was found in 1936 by railroad workers in the area of Tel Khujut Rabu, south of Baghdad.
Most sources date the batteries to around 200 BC, but the first known electric battery – the Voltaic pile – was not invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta until 1799.
The bottoms of these mysterious cylinders were capped with copper discs and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. Another insulating layer of bitumen sealed the tops of the pots and held in place iron rods suspended into the center of the copper cylinders.
The rods showed a strong evidence of having been corroded by an acid solution that evaporated long ago. Read more
The Antediluvians had technologies that matched our own; there are also serious indications that in certain areas they even possessed extraordinary knowledge, which has only hardly been nudged by our present-day science.
Highly advanced hardening techniques of the ancients as well as ancient castings of large pieces were widespread in antiquity. Our ancestors were in possession of an extremely sophisticated scientific knowledge of metalworking from an earlier civilization and evidence of this knowledge was found in different parts of the world.
China with a long history in metallurgy, was the earliest civilization that manufactured cast iron and some of the ancient Chinese feats of casting iron are so impressive as to be almost unbelievable.
Ancient Indians, for example, produced iron capable of withstanding corrosion, most likely due to the high phosphorus content of the iron produced during those times.
A column of cast iron 23 feet (7 meters) high, weighing approximately 6 tons with diameter of 16.4 inches stands in the courtyard of Kutb Minar in Delhi, India.
An inscription in the Sanskrit language informs that the column was originally erected in the temple of Muttra and capped with Garuda – “Messenger of the Gods” – an image of the bird incarnation of the god Vishnu, the Indian god known as “The Preserver”. Read more
This incredible technology was widespread in antiquity and evidence of it can be found in all corners of the world. Prehistoric builders used stones, the toughest surfacing material found on Earth to create perfectly round holes.
This impressive cutting-holes-in-stone technique reveals our ancestors were familiar with an extremely advanced technology we have long been unable to use.
Large-sized holes found in ancient stone demanded engineering skills and proper cutting equipment. Read more
The Norse sagas mention a mysterious “sunstone” – a magical stone which showed sailors road when the sun disappeared.
Now researchers say the stone is real and it’s a special crystal. One of the reasons why the existences of sunstones have long been disputed is because they are contained in the saga of Saint Olaf, a tale with many magical elements.
However, this has changed and now. Sunstones can no longer be considered just a myth. Archaeologists have discovered a special crystal that suggests legendary Viking sunstones did exists in reality. Read more
Ancients were in possession of very sophisticated knowledge. Ancient gold and silversmiths used mercury, which was produced more than 8,000 years ago in Turkey. Mercury was used for gilding (domes, interiors of cathedrals, religious figures and more) in many parts of the ancient world.
Many of the ancients’ techniques are still unknown. They were so skilled that some of the quality they achieved has still not been matched.
In ancient times, these sophisticated methods were used to produce and decorate different types of artefacts, such as jewels, statues, amulets, and commonly-used objects. Gilders performed these processes not only to decorate objects but also to simulate the appearance of gold or silver, sometimes fraudulently. From a technological point of view, the aim of these workmen over 2000 years ago was to make the precious metal coatings as thin and adherent as possible. This was in order to save expensive metals and to improve the resistance to the wear caused by continued use and circulation.
Recent findings confirm the high level of competence reached by the ancient artists and craftsmen and stresses an artistic quality of the objects they produced could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modern ones. Read more
In 1900, an amazing encrusted bronze object of undetermined use was found on the small island of Antikythera, 25 miles northwest of Crete. One of the curious scientists decided to clean it and found that it was a complex instrument with cog-wheels fitting one into another.
Finely graduated circles and inscriptions marked on the instrument in ancient Greek were apparently related to its function. Based on the cargo, it was dated to about the 1st century BC.
It seemed to be a sort of astronomical clock without pendulum but no Greek or Roman writer has ever described such an ancient computer, though many other wonders of antiquity are mentioned. Read more
This passage may read like a passage from the Old Testament of the Bible; but, this is a quote from the Hymn of Aten, a work by Pharaoh Amenhotep IV better known as Akhenaton. This so-called heretic king was the only known Pharaoh in Egyptian history who believed in a monotheistic doctrine when most of the ancient world adhered to polytheism.
Just how did this Pharaoh start to form the practice of worshiping a single god?
Religion in Egypt Before the Sun God Aten
Religion seemed to dominate every aspect of ancient Egyptian culture. Before pharaonic times, there were a variety of deities worshiped in various districts throughout Egypt. It wasn’t until the First Dynastic Period under King Narmer that the country was unified. Religion too was unified, but there wasn’t an official canonization of gods that minimized or eliminated the importance of lesser gods. Instead, deities were cosmopolitan – all of the gods of Egypt were recognized as an important part of the pantheon. This created some confusion and some overlap in beliefs but still no hegemony of deities seemed to exist in ancient Egypt.
Representations of six gods from the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon (Public Domain)
This codification of religion brought a substantial change in kingship. The birth of the concept of a Pharaoh emerged in which the king was no longer just a civil ruler but a part of the divinity – the godhead to be precise. The new god-king ruled in conjunction with Ra, or Amen-Ra, and he was often depicted as a powerful man with a falcon head nested upon his head with cobra surrounding the sun.
With this uncontested rule of the god-king came another important change. The role of the priests became much stronger and more dominant. Unlike today’s priests, they weren’t charged with guiding the masses. Instead, they were the keepers of tradition and played an integral part in appeasing the gods and goddesses through rituals and sacrifice. During the 18th dynasty, there was a temple created in Amen-Ra’s honor and Thebes became the city representing a unified Egypt, after a brief takeover by the Hyksos. The Pharaohs of this era paid homage to this god by incorporating the name Amen in their names, hence Amenhotep.
The Sun-Disk Pharaoh Emerges
By the time Amenhotep IV took the throne, pharaonic Egypt was in full swing. Rituals and traditions of the priests had been set in stone for many generations. Pharaohs simply assumed authority and let the priests do all the work while they enjoyed the finer things. This didn’t sit well with Amenhotep IV, however. Unlike his predecessors or even his successors, he was unhappy with tradition and was especially disgusted with the power of the priesthood. Whether Amenhotep IV unhappiness was due to him being fed up with Egyptian decadence or him being tired of the priests control over the Pharaohs is uncertain. But one thing for sure is that after five years of his reign he set out to turn Egyptian religious practices upside down and because of his divine authority, no one could stop
One of the first things he did was abandon the name Amen-, a name associated with a god he now despised – and changed his name to Akhenaten. Aten was the name of the sun disk god he now embraced as the only god. He then moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna. Most likely this move represented a break from the old and freedom from the authority of the priesthood. He then employed agents who outlawed the worship of other deities and forced the people to recognize only one god. To ensure that the people would follow his orders, he closed the Temple of Amun and defaced all of the deities in the temple.
Akhenaten’s religious fervor was undoubtedly strong during his lifetime and his cronies supported his desire to spread the power and influence of the Aten religion. Unfortunately, upon his death, the religion of Aten faded as swiftly as it had come. Akhenaten’s reign became a historical mockery. Even depictions of him seemed to mock his figure – oval eyes, high cheekbones, pot belly, frail build. Artisans and historians alike worked to minimize Akhenaten’s significance, not by writing him out of history or art; but making him look like a madman with unusual laws and an unusual appearance. The power of Egypt was restored to Thebes, the priesthood was reestablished, and even Akhenaten’s son defied his father’s teachings and reembraced the religion of Amun.
Akhenaten certainly seemed like a religious zealot devoted to a single god. Perhaps his passions were divinely inspired or maybe they centered on a more worldly aim of absolute power and control free of the priesthood’s influence. One man seems to imply that Akhenaten’s motives stemmed from the fact that he was Moses himself – the man depicted in the old testament of the Bible. Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus – is convinced that archaeological and Biblical evidence prove that Akhenaten and Moses were the same man.
¿Hay algún significado para las edades desconcertantes de los patriarcas antediluvianos en el capítulo quinto de Génesis? ¿Y por qué estos números difieren entre el texto masorético y la Septuaginta?
Estas preguntas ocuparon al novelista sueco del siglo XIX, periodista, erudito y miembro posterior del parlamento, Viktor Rydberg durante los últimos 1860s.
En 1869, había encontrado respuestas a estas preguntas que se publicaban en sueco. Las ideas de Rydberg atrajeron el interés de Samuel Birch del British Museum y un artículo fue publicado en inglés unos años más tarde en Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877: vol. V) bajo el título “Key to the genealogical table of Los primeros patriarcas en Génesis “.
Desde entonces, el papel se ha dejado casi inadvertido.
Esperanza de vida de los Patriarcas Bíblicos. (CC BY SA)
Tesis de Rydberg
El periódico sugiere que una tabla astronómica se esconde tras los números de los patriarcas. Esa tabla incluye las figuras centrales a la astronomía de la época y específicamente crucial al calendario lunisolar hebreo arcaico.
A pesar de lo plausible que fuera la solución, permaneció bastante especulativa con poca fuente de material para apoyarla. Más tarde hallazgos arqueológicos, sin embargo, como la Lista del Rey Sumerio y los Rollos del Mar Muerto, parece ofrecer cierto apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.
Escritura cuneiforme en un ladrillo de arcilla, escrita en lengua sumeria (durante la época del imperio akkadiano), listando a todos los reyes desde la creación de la realeza hasta 1800 aC, cuando se creó la lista. Exhibido en el museo de Ashmolean, Oxford. (CC BY SA 4.0) Esta es una pieza de evidencia que parece ofrecer apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.
Echemos un vistazo más de cerca. Comparando los linajes en Génesis 4 y 5, Rydberg asumió que compartían un documento fuente común, que él se propuso reconstruir. Creía que Seth, en lugar de Elohim, había sido la divinidad en el documento original. Dado que los nombres de Adán y Enosh tiene el mismo significado, calculó que uno de ellos fue añadido más tarde. Por lo tanto, Seth y Enosh no fueron incluidos en la reconstrucción. Terminó con una lista de ocho patriarcas antediluvianos.
Seth. Línea de los patriarcas en iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Catedral de la Asunción, Monasterio de San Cyril-Belozersky. Museo del monasterio de Cyril Belozersky. (CC BY SA 3.0)
En Génesis 5, tres números están conectados a cada patriarca. Su edad en el nacimiento de su primer hijo, los años restantes de su vida, y su edad en la muerte. La edad de Enoc siendo 365 ha sido tomada como una indirecta hacia una interpretación astronómica. Arreglar estos números en columnas y sumarlos juntos confirmó la sugerencia astronómica. La primera columna dio el número 1461, también conocido como el ciclo de Sothis – el número de años entre dos levantamientos heliacales de la estrella Sirius en la misma fecha del año solar. Esto implicaría que el diluvio sucedió exactamente un período Sothis después de la creación del hombre.
“El diluvio” (1834) de John Martin. ( Dominio publico )
La segunda columna arrojó el número 4947. Ese número resulta ser el número de años lunares equivalente a 4800 años solares. En 600 años, este ciclo diverge con menos de un día, si se observa un día intercalado cada 50 años. Esto encaja perfectamente con los llamados jubileos descritos en Levítico (25: 8-13).
Estos dos números exactos que se producen cuando las edades de los patriarcas se suman juntos difícilmente pueden ser explicados como mera coincidencia.
Evidencia de apoyo
Además, la desintegración de la Lista del Rey Sumerio proporciona una posible explicación de por qué el texto masorético tiene diez patriarcas en lugar de ocho.
También es bien sabido desde el hallazgo de los pergaminos del Mar Muerto en los años 40 que el calendario era un tema candente para el movimiento que se refugió en Qumran por el Mar Muerto. Cuando se estableció la comunidad de Qumrán, el templo de Jerusalén había adoptado varias costumbres griegas, entre ellas el más conveniente ciclo metónico de 19 años para hacer calendarios.
Dos rollos de los Rollos del Mar Muerto se encuentran en su ubicación en las cuevas de Qumran antes de ser retirados para el examen académico por los arqueólogos. ( Dominio publico )
Además, comparando el texto masorético con el de la Septuaginta, Rydberg notó algunas diferencias importantes. Aunque las edades completas de los patriarcas son las mismas (excepto Lamec), sus edades al nacimiento de sus primeros hijos (y por lo tanto el resto de sus vidas) difieren considerablemente. En el momento de la primera traducción griega de la Torá, el significado astronómico puede muy bien haber quedado obsoleto a favor del calendario lunisolar griego. Sin embargo, el linaje sirvió a un propósito como un documento pseudo-histórico atando sucesos posteriores con la creación del mundo.
Rydberg argumentó que el texto masorético se basaba en documentos babilonios para este propósito.
La Septuaginta, por otra parte, fue corregida para armonizar con los documentos históricos de los egipcios, muy probablemente la Aegyptiaca de Manetho. Al comparar los linajes de los patriarcas después del diluvio en la Septuaginta, parecen coincidir con las listas de reyes de los egipcios hasta la época de la dinastía número 30. El tiempo de las primeras once dinastías de Egipto se suma a un período de 2262 años, y también lo hacen los números de los Setenta de los patriarcas antes de la inundación
Génesis 5:24: “Y anduvo Enoc con Dios, y no lo fue; Porque Dios lo tomó. “(KJV) Ilustración del 1728 ‘Figuras de la Biblia’; Ilustrado por Gerard Hoet (1648-1733) y otros, y publicado por P. de Hondt en La Haya; Imagen cortesía de Bizzell Bible Collection, Biblioteca de la Universidad de Oklahoma. (Dominio Público) Enoc fue el séptimo de los diez Patriarcas previos al diluvio.
Del mismo modo, el tiempo desde el diluvio hasta el éxodo asciende a 1777 años en la Septuaginta, que coincide con el tiempo de la duodécima dinastía hasta el faraón Tutmosis. Y finalmente, el tiempo desde el éxodo hasta el final de la dinastía 30 es 1117 años tanto en la Septuaginta como en los fragmentos existentes de Aegyptiaca.
En resumen, el artículo de Rydberg sugiere que los números en Génesis 5 eran originalmente una tabla astronómica, pero cuando los calendarios griegos hicieron los calendarios del jubileo obsoletos estos números fueron utilizados para reconciliar las historias de los hebreos con los babilonios en el texto masorético, y con los egipcios En la Septuaginta.
Is there any significance to the puzzling ages of the antediluvian patriarchs in the fifth chapter of Genesis? And why do these numbers differ between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint?
These questions occupied the Swedish 19th century novelist, journalist, scholar and later member of parliament, Viktor Rydberg during the late 1860s.
In 1869, he had come up with answers to these questions that were published in Swedish. The ideas of Rydberg caught the interest of Samuel Birch of the British Museum and a paper was published in English a few years later in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877:vol.V) under the title “ Key to the genealogical table of the first patriarchs in Genesis ”.
Since then, the paper has been left largely unnoticed.
Lifespans of the Biblical Patriarchs. ( CC BY SA )
The paper suggests that an astronomical table is hiding behind the numbers of the patriarchs. That table includes figures central to the astronomy of the time and specifically crucial to the archaic Hebrew lunisolar calendar.
However plausible the solution was, it remained quite speculative with little source material to support it. Later archaeological findings however, like the Sumerian King List and the Dead Sea Scrolls, seems to offer some support to Rydberg’s thesis.
Cuneiform writing on a clay brick, written in the Sumerian language (during the time of the Akkadian empire), listing all kings from the creation of kingship until 1800 BC when the list was created. Displayed at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. (CC BY SA 4.0 ) This is one piece of evidence which seems to offer support for Rydberg’s thesis.
Let´s take a closer look at it. Comparing the lineages in Genesis 4 and 5, Rydberg assumed they shared a common source document, which he set out to reconstruct. He believed Seth, rather than Elohim, had been the divinity in the original document. Since the names Adam and Enosh has the same meaning, he figured one of them was added later. Seth and Enosh were therefore not included in the reconstruction. He ended up with a list of eight antediluvian patriarchs.
Seth. Patriarchs line in iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Cathedral of the Assumption, St. Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Museum of Cyril Belozersky Monastery. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )
In Genesis 5 three numbers are connected to each patriarch. Their age at the birth of their first son, the remaining years of their life, and their age at death. The age of Enoch being 365 has been taken as a hint towards an astronomical interpretation. Arranging these numbers in columns and adding them together confirmed the astronomical hint. The first column gave the number 1461, otherwise known as the Sothis-cycle – the number of years between two heliacal risings of the star Sirius on the same date of the solar year. This would imply that the deluge happened exactly a Sothis-period after the creation of man.
The second column yielded the number 4947. That number happens to be the number of lunar years equivalent to 4800 solar years. In 600 years, this cycle diverges with less than a day, if an intercalary day is observed every 50th year. This fits perfectly with the so-called jubilees described in Leviticus (25:8–13).
These two exact numbers occurring when the ages of the patriarchs are added together can hardly be explained away as mere coincidences.
Furthermore, the unearthing of the Sumerian King List provides a possible explanation to why the Masoretic text has ten patriarchs rather than eight.
Also, it is well known since the finding of the Dead Sea scrolls in the 1940s that the calendar was a burning issue for the movement that took refuge in Qumran by the Dead Sea. By the time the Qumran Community was established, the temple in Jerusalem had adopted several Greek customs, among them the more convenient metonic 19-year cycle for making calendars.
Two scrolls from the Dead Sea Scrolls lie at their location in the Qumran Caves before being removed for scholarly examination by archaeologists. ( Public Domain )
Moreover, comparing the Masoretic text with that of the Septuagint, Rydberg noticed some important differences. Although the full ages of the patriarchs are the same (except for Lamech), their ages at the birth of their first sons (and hence the remainder of their lives) differ considerably. By the time of the first Greek translation of the Torah, the astronomical significance may very well have become out of date in favor of the Greek lunisolar calendar. However, the lineage did serve a purpose as a pseudo-historical document tying together later events with the creation of the world.
Rydberg argued that the Masoretic text was based on Babylonian documents for exactly this purpose.
The Septuagint, on the other hand, was corrected to harmonize with the historical documents of the Egyptians, most probably Manetho’s Aegyptiaca. When comparing lineages of the patriarchs after the flood in the Septuagint, they seem to match the king lists of the Egyptians up to the time of the 30th dynasty.
The time of the first eleven dynasties of Egypt adds up to a period of 2262 years, and so do the Septuagint numbers of the patriarchs before the flood
Genesis 5:24: “And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” (KJV) illustration from the 1728 ‘Figures de la Bible’; illustrated by Gerard Hoet (1648–1733) and others, and published by P. de Hondt in The Hague; image courtesy Bizzell Bible Collection, University of Oklahoma Libraries. ( Public Domain ) Enoch was the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs.
Likewise, the time from the flood to the Exodus amounts to 1777 years in the Septuagint, which matches the time from the twelfth dynasty up until Pharaoh Tutmosis. And finally, the time from the Exodus to the end of the 30th dynasty is 1117 years in both the Septuagint and the extant fragments of Aegyptiaca.
In sum, Rydberg’s paper suggests that the numbers in Genesis 5 were originally an astronomical table, but when Greek calendars made the jubilee calendars obsolete these numbers were used to reconcile the histories of the Hebrews with the Babylonians in the Masoretic text, and with the Egyptians in the Septuagint.
Top Image: ‘Abraham and the Angels’ by Aert de Gelder ( Wikipedia). Abraham was said to have lived to the age of 175.
Horus / Osiris De Egipto
Las leyendas de Osiris / Horus se remontan a miles de años, y muchas personas a lo largo de los milenios han pensado que Osiris es una persona real, algunos afirman que vivió hace 22.000 años. El culto de Osiris, Isis y Horus estaba extendido en el mundo antiguo, incluso en Roma. En el mito egipcio, Horus y su padre una vez y futuro, Osiris, son frecuentemente intercambiables, como en “Yo y mi Padre somos Uno”. En cuanto a Osiris, Walker dice:
De todos los dioses salvadores adorados al principio de la era cristiana, Osiris pudo haber contribuido más detalles a la figura evolutiva de Cristo que cualquier otro. Ya muy viejo en Egipto, Osiris se identificó con casi todos los dioses egipcios y estaba en el camino de absorber a todos. Tenía más de 200 nombres divinos. Fue llamado El Señor de los Señores, rey de reyes, Dios de los Dioses. Era la resurrección y la vida, el buen pastor, eternidad y eternidad, el dios que “hizo que los hombres y las mujeres volviesen a nacer”. Osiris fue para los egipcios el dios hombre que sufrió , Y murió, y resucitó, y reinó eternamente en el cielo. Creyeron que ellos heredarían la vida eterna, tal como lo había hecho … ”
La llegada de Osiris fue anunciada por tres hombres sabios: las tres estrellas Minkata, Anilam y Alnitak en el cinturón de Orion, que apuntan directamente a la estrella de Osiris en el este, Sirius (Sothis)
Significación de su nacimiento …
Ciertamente Osiris era un mesías prototipo, así como Host devorado.
Su carne se comía en forma de comunión tortas de trigo, la “planta de la Verdad” … el culto de Osiris aportó una serie de ideas y frases a la Biblia. Los Salmos 23 copiaron un texto egipcio apelando a Osiris el bien guiado para llevar al difunto a los “pastos verdes” y “aguas tranquilas” de la tierra nefernefer, para restaurar el alma al cuerpo y dar protección en el valle del Sombra de la muerte (el Tuat).
La oración de los señores fue prefigurada por el himno egipcio a Osiris-amén, principio: “Amén, oh Amén, que estás en el cielo”. Amén también fue invocado al final de cada oración.
This is base on history, whether is wrong or not…
Horus/Osiris Of Egypt
The legends of Osiris/Horus go back thousands of years, and many people over the millennia have thought Osiris to be a real person, some claiming he lived up to 22,000 years ago. The cult od Osiris, Isis and Horus was widespread in the ancient world, including in Rome. in the Egyptian myth, Horus and his once-and-future Father, Osiris, are frequently interchangeable, as in “I and my Father are One”. Concerning Osiris, Walker says:
Of all savior-gods worshipped at the beginning of the Christian era Osiris may have contributed more details to the evolving Christ figure than any other. already very old in Egypt, Osiris was identified with nearly every other Egyptian god and was on the way to absorbing them all. He had well over 200 divine name. he was called The Lord of Lords, king of kings, God of Gods. he was resurrection and the Life, the good shepherd, Eternity and ever lastingness, the god who “made men and women to be born again.” budge says, “from first to last, Osiris was to the Egyptians the god-man who suffered, and died, and rose again, and reigned eternally in heaven. they believed that they would inherit eternal life, just as he had done…”
Osiris’s coming was announced by three wise men: the three stars Minkata, Anilam, and Alnitak in the belt of Orion, which point directly to Osiris’s star in the east, Sirius (Sothis)
signification of his birth…
Certainly Osiris was a prototypical messiah, as well as devoured Host.
his flesh was eaten in the form of communion cakes of wheat, the “plant of Truth”…the cult of Osiris contributed a number of ideas and phrases to the bible. the 23rd Psalms copied an Egyptian text appealing to Osiris the good shepherded to lead the deceased to the “green pastures” and “still waters’ of the nefer_nefer land, to restore the soul to the body, and to give protection in the valley of the shadow of death (the Tuat).
the lords prayer was prefigures by Egyptian hymn to Osiris-amen beginning, “O Amen, O Amen, who are in heaven.” amen was also invoked at the end of every prayer.
The Christ Conspiracy:
The Greatest Story Ever Sold