Was the Heretic Pharaoh Akhenaton in Fact the Father of Modern Monotheism?

Heretic-Pharaoh-Akhenaton

                                               How plentiful it is, what you have made,

Although they are hidden from view,

Sole god, without another beside you;

You created the earth as you wished,

When you were by yourself,

Mankind, all cattle and kine,

All beings on land, who fare upon their feet,

And all beings in the air who fly with their wings.

This passage may read like a passage from the Old Testament of the Bible; but, this is a quote from the Hymn of Aten, a work by Pharaoh Amenhotep IV better known as Akhenaton. This so-called heretic king was the only known Pharaoh in Egyptian history who believed in a monotheistic doctrine when most of the ancient world adhered to polytheism.

Just how did this Pharaoh start to form the practice of worshiping a single god?

Religion in Egypt Before the Sun God Aten

Religion seemed to dominate every aspect of ancient Egyptian culture.  Before pharaonic times, there were a variety of deities worshiped in various districts throughout Egypt.  It wasn’t until the First Dynastic Period under King Narmer that the country was unified.  Religion too was unified, but there wasn’t an official canonization of gods that minimized or eliminated the importance of lesser gods.   Instead, deities were cosmopolitan – all of the gods of Egypt were recognized as an important part of the pantheon.  This created some confusion and some overlap in beliefs but still no hegemony of deities seemed to exist in ancient Egypt.

Representations-of-six-gods

 

Representations of six gods from the Ancient Egyptian Pantheon (Public Domain)

This codification of religion brought a substantial change in kingship.  The birth of the concept of a Pharaoh emerged in which the king was no longer just a civil ruler but a part of the divinity – the godhead to be precise.  The new god-king ruled in conjunction with Ra, or Amen-Ra, and he was often depicted as a powerful man with a falcon head nested upon his head with cobra surrounding the sun.

 

Imentet and Ra from the tomb of Nefertari, 13th century BC (Public Domain)

With this uncontested rule of the god-king came another important change.  The role of the priests became much stronger and more dominant.  Unlike today’s priests, they weren’t charged with guiding the masses.  Instead, they were the keepers of tradition and played an integral part in appeasing the gods and goddesses through rituals and sacrifice.   During the 18th dynasty, there was a temple created in Amen-Ra’s honor and Thebes became the city representing a unified Egypt, after a brief takeover by the Hyksos.  The Pharaohs of this era paid homage to this god by incorporating the name Amen in their names, hence Amenhotep.

The Sun-Disk Pharaoh Emerges

By the time Amenhotep IV took the throne, pharaonic Egypt was in full swing.  Rituals and traditions of the priests had been set in stone for many generations.  Pharaohs simply assumed authority and let the priests do all the work while they enjoyed the finer things.  This didn’t sit well with Amenhotep IV, however.  Unlike his predecessors or even his successors, he was unhappy with tradition and was especially disgusted with the power of the priesthood.  Whether Amenhotep IV unhappiness was due to him being fed up with Egyptian decadence or him being tired of the priests control over the Pharaohs is uncertain.  But one thing for sure is that after five years of his reign he set out to turn Egyptian religious practices upside down and because of his divine authority, no one could stop

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Statue of Akhenaten – Father of Tutankhamun (CC BY-SA 2.0)

One of the first things he did was abandon the name Amen-, a name associated with a god he now despised – and changed his name to Akhenaten.  Aten was the name of the sun disk god he now embraced as the only god.  He then moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna.  Most likely this move represented a break from the old and freedom from the authority of the priesthood.  He then employed agents who outlawed the worship of other deities and forced the people to recognize only one god.  To ensure that the people would follow his orders, he closed the Temple of Amun and defaced all of the deities in the temple.

 

Statue of Amun (Public Domain)

Life After Aten

Akhenaten’s religious fervor was undoubtedly strong during his lifetime and his cronies supported his desire to spread the power and influence of the Aten religion.  Unfortunately, upon his death, the religion of Aten faded as swiftly as it had come.  Akhenaten’s reign became a historical mockery.  Even depictions of him seemed to mock his figure – oval eyes, high cheekbones, pot belly, frail build.  Artisans and historians alike worked to minimize Akhenaten’s significance, not by writing him out of history or art; but making him look like a madman with unusual laws and an unusual appearance.  The power of Egypt was restored to Thebes, the priesthood was reestablished, and even Akhenaten’s son defied his father’s teachings and reembraced the religion of Amun.

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The exaggerated features of Akhenaton (CC BY-NC-NA 2.0)

Could Akhenaton be Moses?

Akhenaten certainly seemed like a religious zealot devoted to a single god.  Perhaps his passions were divinely inspired or maybe they centered on a more worldly aim of absolute power and control free of the priesthood’s influence.  One man seems to imply that Akhenaten’s motives stemmed from the fact that he was Moses himself – the man depicted in the old testament of the Bible.  Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus – is convinced that archaeological and Biblical evidence prove that Akhenaten and Moses were the same man.

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Ahmed-Osman

 

Ahmed Osman – author of Moses and Akhenaton: The Secret History of Egypt at the Time of the Exodus

Interview with Expert Ahmed Osman on the Moses–Akhenaton Debate

Mel Childs: Why do you think that Akhenaton was Moses?

Ahmed Osman: The reason for me to conclude that King Akhenaten of the Egyptian 18th Dynasty

was the same person as Biblical Moses, as well as both of them have introduced the

first monotheistic belief, they lived in Egypt at the very same time.

MC:  It is implied that Moses of the Bible had a conflict with Pharaoh Ramses; however, history doesn’t account for Akhenaton having any issues with any other Pharaohs.  How do you explain this?

AO: The Pharaoh at the time of Moses is not mentioned by name in the Bible.

However, the name Ramses is mentioned as the city the Israelites had to build

for Pharaoh.

I believe that Akhenaten was forced to abdicate his throne for his son, Tutankhamun,

and live in Sinai in exile. When all the kings of the 18th Dynasty died, General Ramses,

who established the 19th Dynasty, was challenged by Akhenaten, who came back from exile,

demanding his throne.

When he lost his throne, Akhenaten also lost his name and became known as Moses.

This indicates in Egyptian the son or heir.

MC:  Do you think that Akhenaton’s monotheism influenced later forms of monotheism that emerged?

AO:  Akhenaten’s monotheism, not only influenced other religious beliefs, but also philosophy.

As ancient Egyptians believed that humans have physical and spiritual dimensions,

Akhenaten was the first person to recognize the cosmos also has a spiritual dimension.

Is Akhenaten the father of monotheism as it is known today?  Share your opinions below.

Top image: A house altar showing Akhenaten, Nefertiti and three of their daughters. 18th dynasty, reign of Akhenaten (Public Domain)

By Melisha Childs

Resources

Nardo, D. Life in Ancient Egypt. San Diego:  Referencepoint Press, 2014.

Aldred, C. Akhenaten:  King of Egypt. NY: Thames & Hudson. 1988

Dersin, D. What Life was Like on the Banks of the Nile: Egypt 3050 – 30 BC. Fairfax: Time-Life Books. 1997.

Religious Literature. Hymn to Aten.

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¿Hay una explicación natural para las edades antinaturales en el Génesis?

The-Unnatural-Ages-in-GenesisPor Nils Ekblad

¿Hay algún significado para las edades desconcertantes de los patriarcas antediluvianos en el capítulo quinto de Génesis? ¿Y por qué estos números difieren entre el texto masorético y la Septuaginta?  

Estas preguntas ocuparon al novelista sueco del siglo XIX, periodista, erudito y miembro posterior del parlamento, Viktor Rydberg durante los últimos 1860s.

En 1869, había encontrado respuestas a estas preguntas que se publicaban en sueco. Las ideas de Rydberg atrajeron el interés de Samuel Birch del British Museum y un artículo fue publicado en inglés unos años más tarde en Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877: vol. V) bajo el título “Key to the genealogical table of Los primeros patriarcas en Génesis “.

Desde entonces, el papel se ha dejado casi inadvertido.

La lista del rey sumerio todavía rompe historiadores después de más de un siglo de investigación

Los rollos de los mares muertos revelan que el arca de Noé se formó como una pirámide

Leyendas, Misterios, Luz y Tinieblas: La Historia Secreta de la Cueva Bíblica de los Patriarcas  

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Esperanza de vida de los Patriarcas Bíblicos. (CC BY SA)

Tesis de Rydberg

El periódico sugiere que una tabla astronómica se esconde tras los números de los patriarcas. Esa tabla incluye las figuras centrales a la astronomía de la época y específicamente crucial al calendario lunisolar hebreo arcaico.

A pesar de lo plausible que fuera la solución, permaneció bastante especulativa con poca fuente de material para apoyarla. Más tarde hallazgos arqueológicos, sin embargo, como la Lista del Rey Sumerio y los Rollos del Mar Muerto, parece ofrecer cierto apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.

Cuneiform-writing_0

Escritura cuneiforme en un ladrillo de arcilla, escrita en lengua sumeria (durante la época del imperio akkadiano), listando a todos los reyes desde la creación de la realeza hasta 1800 aC, cuando se creó la lista. Exhibido en el museo de Ashmolean, Oxford. (CC BY SA 4.0) Esta es una pieza de evidencia que parece ofrecer apoyo a la tesis de Rydberg.

Echemos un vistazo más de cerca. Comparando los linajes en Génesis 4 y 5, Rydberg asumió que compartían un documento fuente común, que él se propuso reconstruir. Creía que Seth, en lugar de Elohim, había sido la divinidad en el documento original. Dado que los nombres de Adán y Enosh tiene el mismo significado, calculó que uno de ellos fue añadido más tarde. Por lo tanto, Seth y Enosh no fueron incluidos en la reconstrucción. Terminó con una lista de ocho patriarcas antediluvianos.

Seth_-Patriarchs

Seth. Línea de los patriarcas en iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Catedral de la Asunción, Monasterio de San Cyril-Belozersky. Museo del monasterio de Cyril Belozersky. (CC BY SA 3.0)

En Génesis 5, tres números están conectados a cada patriarca. Su edad en el nacimiento de su primer hijo, los años restantes de su vida, y su edad en la muerte. La edad de Enoc siendo 365 ha sido tomada como una indirecta hacia una interpretación astronómica. Arreglar estos números en columnas y sumarlos juntos confirmó la sugerencia astronómica. La primera columna dio el número 1461, también conocido como el ciclo de Sothis – el número de años entre dos levantamientos heliacales de la estrella Sirius en la misma fecha del año solar. Esto implicaría que el diluvio sucedió exactamente un período Sothis después de la creación del hombre.

The-Deluge_4

“El diluvio” (1834) de John Martin. ( Dominio publico )

La segunda columna arrojó el número 4947. Ese número resulta ser el número de años lunares equivalente a 4800 años solares. En 600 años, este ciclo diverge con menos de un día, si se observa un día intercalado cada 50 años. Esto encaja perfectamente con los llamados jubileos descritos en Levítico (25: 8-13).

Estos dos números exactos que se producen cuando las edades de los patriarcas se suman juntos difícilmente pueden ser explicados como mera coincidencia.

Evidencia de apoyo

Además, la desintegración de la Lista del Rey Sumerio proporciona una posible explicación de por qué el texto masorético tiene diez patriarcas en lugar de ocho.

También es bien sabido desde el hallazgo de los pergaminos del Mar Muerto en los años 40 que el calendario era un tema candente para el movimiento que se refugió en Qumran por el Mar Muerto. Cuando se estableció la comunidad de Qumrán, el templo de Jerusalén había adoptado varias costumbres griegas, entre ellas el más conveniente ciclo metónico de 19 años para hacer calendarios.

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Dos rollos de los Rollos del Mar Muerto se encuentran en su ubicación en las cuevas de Qumran antes de ser retirados para el examen académico por los arqueólogos. ( Dominio publico )

Además, comparando el texto masorético con el de la Septuaginta, Rydberg notó algunas diferencias importantes. Aunque las edades completas de los patriarcas son las mismas (excepto Lamec), sus edades al nacimiento de sus primeros hijos (y por lo tanto el resto de sus vidas) difieren considerablemente. En el momento de la primera traducción griega de la Torá, el significado astronómico puede muy bien haber quedado obsoleto a favor del calendario lunisolar griego. Sin embargo, el linaje sirvió a un propósito como un documento pseudo-histórico atando sucesos posteriores con la creación del mundo.

Rydberg argumentó que el texto masorético se basaba en documentos babilonios para este propósito.

La Septuaginta, por otra parte, fue corregida para armonizar con los documentos históricos de los egipcios, muy probablemente la Aegyptiaca de Manetho. Al comparar los linajes de los patriarcas después del diluvio en la Septuaginta, parecen coincidir con las listas de reyes de los egipcios hasta la época de la dinastía número 30. El tiempo de las primeras once dinastías de Egipto se suma a un período de 2262 años, y también lo hacen los números de los Setenta de los patriarcas antes de la inundación

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Génesis 5:24: “Y anduvo Enoc con Dios, y no lo fue; Porque Dios lo tomó. “(KJV) Ilustración del 1728 ‘Figuras de la Biblia’; Ilustrado por Gerard Hoet (1648-1733) y otros, y publicado por P. de Hondt en La Haya; Imagen cortesía de Bizzell Bible Collection, Biblioteca de la Universidad de Oklahoma. (Dominio Público) Enoc fue el séptimo de los diez Patriarcas previos al diluvio.

Del mismo modo, el tiempo desde el diluvio hasta el éxodo asciende a 1777 años en la Septuaginta, que coincide con el tiempo de la duodécima dinastía hasta el faraón Tutmosis. Y finalmente, el tiempo desde el éxodo hasta el final de la dinastía 30 es 1117 años tanto en la Septuaginta como en los fragmentos existentes de Aegyptiaca.

En resumen, el artículo de Rydberg sugiere que los números en Génesis 5 eran originalmente una tabla astronómica, pero cuando los calendarios griegos hicieron los calendarios del jubileo obsoletos estos números fueron utilizados para reconciliar las historias de los hebreos con los babilonios en el texto masorético, y con los egipcios En la Septuaginta.

Is There a Natural Explanation For The Unnatural Ages in Genesis?

The-Unnatural-Ages-in-Genesis

By Nils Ekblad

Is there any significance to the puzzling ages of the antediluvian patriarchs in the fifth chapter of Genesis? And why do these numbers differ between the Masoretic text and the Septuagint?

 

These questions occupied the Swedish 19th century novelist, journalist, scholar and later member of parliament, Viktor Rydberg during the late 1860s.

In 1869, he had come up with answers to these questions that were published in Swedish. The ideas of Rydberg caught the interest of Samuel Birch of the British Museum and a paper was published in English a few years later in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archaeology (1877:vol.V) under the title “ Key to the genealogical table of the first patriarchs in Genesis ”.

Since then, the paper has been left largely unnoticed.

Lifespans-of-the-Biblical-Patriarchs

Lifespans of the Biblical Patriarchs. ( CC BY SA )

Rydberg’s Thesis

The paper suggests that an astronomical table is hiding behind the numbers of the patriarchs. That table includes figures central to the astronomy of the time and specifically crucial to the archaic Hebrew lunisolar calendar.

However plausible the solution was, it remained quite speculative with little source material to support it. Later archaeological findings however, like the Sumerian King List and the Dead Sea Scrolls, seems to offer some support to Rydberg’s thesis.

Cuneiform-writing_0

 

Cuneiform writing on a clay brick, written in the Sumerian language (during the time of the Akkadian empire), listing all kings from the creation of kingship until 1800 BC when the list was created. Displayed at Ashmolean Museum, Oxford.  (CC BY SA 4.0 ) This is one piece of evidence which seems to offer support for Rydberg’s thesis.

Let´s take a closer look at it. Comparing the lineages in Genesis 4 and 5, Rydberg assumed they shared a common source document, which he set out to reconstruct. He believed Seth, rather than Elohim, had been the divinity in the original document. Since the names Adam and Enosh has the same meaning, he figured one of them was added later. Seth and Enosh were therefore not included in the reconstruction. He ended up with a list of eight antediluvian patriarchs.

Seth_-Patriarchs

 

Seth. Patriarchs line in iconostasis. Zhdan Dementiev, Vologda. Cathedral of the Assumption, St. Cyril-Belozersky Monastery. Museum of Cyril Belozersky Monastery. ( CC BY SA 3.0 )

In Genesis 5 three numbers are connected to each patriarch. Their age at the birth of their first son, the remaining years of their life, and their age at death. The age of Enoch being 365 has been taken as a hint towards an astronomical interpretation. Arranging these numbers in columns and adding them together confirmed the astronomical hint. The first column gave the number 1461, otherwise known as the Sothis-cycle – the number of years between two heliacal risings of the star Sirius on the same date of the solar year. This would imply that the deluge happened exactly a Sothis-period after the creation of man.

The-Deluge_4

‘The Deluge’ (1834) by John Martin. ( Public Domain )

The second column yielded the number 4947. That number happens to be the number of lunar years equivalent to 4800 solar years. In 600 years, this cycle diverges with less than a day, if an intercalary day is observed every 50th year. This fits perfectly with the so-called jubilees described in Leviticus (25:8–13).

These two exact numbers occurring when the ages of the patriarchs are added together can hardly be explained away as mere coincidences.

Supporting Evidence

Furthermore, the unearthing of the Sumerian King List provides a possible explanation to why the Masoretic text has ten patriarchs rather than eight.

Also, it is well known since the finding of the Dead Sea scrolls in the 1940s that the calendar was a burning issue for the movement that took refuge in Qumran by the Dead Sea. By the time the Qumran Community was established, the temple in Jerusalem had adopted several Greek customs, among them the more convenient metonic 19-year cycle for making calendars.

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Two scrolls from the Dead Sea Scrolls lie at their location in the Qumran Caves before being removed for scholarly examination by archaeologists. ( Public Domain )

Moreover, comparing the Masoretic text with that of the Septuagint, Rydberg noticed some important differences. Although the full ages of the patriarchs are the same (except for Lamech), their ages at the birth of their first sons (and hence the remainder of their lives) differ considerably. By the time of the first Greek translation of the Torah, the astronomical significance may very well have become out of date in favor of the Greek lunisolar calendar. However, the lineage did serve a purpose as a pseudo-historical document tying together later events with the creation of the world.

Rydberg argued that the Masoretic text was based on Babylonian documents for exactly this purpose.

The Septuagint, on the other hand, was corrected to harmonize with the historical documents of the Egyptians, most probably Manetho’s Aegyptiaca. When comparing lineages of the patriarchs after the flood in the Septuagint, they seem to match the king lists of the Egyptians up to the time of the 30th dynasty.

The time of the first eleven dynasties of Egypt adds up to a period of 2262 years, and so do the Septuagint numbers of the patriarchs before the flood

Genesis-524

 

 

Genesis 5:24: “And Enoch walked with God: and he was not; for God took him.” (KJV) illustration from the 1728 ‘Figures de la Bible’; illustrated by Gerard Hoet (1648–1733) and others, and published by P. de Hondt in The Hague; image courtesy Bizzell Bible Collection, University of Oklahoma Libraries. ( Public Domain ) Enoch was the seventh of the ten pre-Deluge Patriarchs.

Likewise, the time from the flood to the Exodus amounts to 1777 years in the Septuagint, which matches the time from the twelfth dynasty up until Pharaoh Tutmosis. And finally, the time from the Exodus to the end of the 30th dynasty is 1117 years in both the Septuagint and the extant fragments of Aegyptiaca.

In sum, Rydberg’s paper suggests that the numbers in Genesis 5 were originally an astronomical table, but when Greek calendars made the jubilee calendars obsolete these numbers were used to reconcile the histories of the Hebrews with the Babylonians in the Masoretic text, and with the Egyptians in the Septuagint.

Top Image: ‘Abraham and the Angels’ by Aert de Gelder ( Wikipedia). Abraham was said to have lived to the age of 175.

http://www.ancient-origins.net/history/there-natural-explanation-unnatural-ages-genesis-008590/page/0/1

Archaeologists find 12,000-year-old pictograph at Gobeklitepe

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Excavations being conducted at the ancient city of Göbeklitepe in Turkey have uncovered an ancient pictograph on an obelisk which researchers say could be the earliest known pictograph ever discovered.

pictograph is an image that conveys meaning through its resemblance to a physical object. Such images are most commonly found in pictographic writing, such as hieroglyphics or other characters used by ancient Sumerian and Chinese civilizations. Some non-literate cultures in parts of Africa, South America and Oceania still use them.

“The scene on the obelisk unearthed in Göbeklitepe could be construed as the first pictograph because it depicts an event thematically” explained Director of the Şanlıurfa Museum, Müslüm Ercan, to the Hurriyet Daily News. Ercan is leading the excavation at Göbeklitepe. “It depicts a human head in the wing of a vulture and a headless human body under the stela. There are various figures like cranes and scorpions around this figure. This is the portrayal of a moment; it could be the first example of pictograph. They are not random figures. We see this type of thing portrayal on the walls in 6,000-5,000 B.C. in Çatalhöyük [in modern-day western Turkey].”

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The ‘Vulture-Stone’. Credit: Alistair Coombs

The artifacts discovered in the ancient city have provided information about ancient burial traditions in the area in which bodies were left in the open for raptors such as vultures to consume. According to Mr Ercan, this enabled the soul of the deceased to be carried into the sky. It was called “burial in the sky” and was depicted on the obelisks in Göbeklitepe. Such rituals were conducted in and around the city around 12,000 years ago.
Many of the items discovered on the site have not been seen before anywhere else in the world and thus are the first of their kind to be discovered.

Göbeklitepe is situated on the top of a hill about 15 kilometres away from Sanliurfa in South-eastern Turkey. The city can be dated back to 10,000 BC and consists of a series of circular and oval shaped structures that were first excavated by Professor Klaus Schmidt supported by the German Archaeological Institute. Schmidt travelled to the site having heard about it from accounts of other previous visits by anthropologists from the University of Chicago and Istanbul University in the 1960’s. Both institutions ignored the site, believing it to be nothing more than a medieval graveyard.

Artifacts found on the site indicate that the city was intended for ritual use only and not as a domain for human occupation. Each of the 20 structures consists of a ring of walls surrounding two T-shaped monumental pillars between 3 metres (9 feet) and 6 metres high (19 feet) and weighing between 40 and 60 tons.

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Enormous T-shaped pillars at Göbeklitepe. Credit: Alistair Coombs

Archaeologists believe these pillars are stylised representations of human beings because of the human appendages carved into the stone. These images are accompanied by those of animals including foxes, snakes, wild boars, cranes and ducks.  

The archaeologists believe Göbeklitepe was used as a religious centre. Geo-radar work has revealed evidence of 23 temple structures in the area. Two of the obelisks in the city were constructed in the form of a letter T and are positioned opposite each other within a circle of smaller, round obelisks.

Ercan said that the museum at Şanlıurfa contains a small sculpture of a pig that was discovered in front of the central stelas in the ‘C’ temple at Göbeklitepe. Such statues may have depicted sacred beings.

Work on the basic infrastructure of a roof to cover the site and help preserve its structures and artefacts has just been completed, ready for the construction of the roof itself. This is an EU project and the archaeologists aim to complete it in eight months’ time. 

Read more: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-find-12000-year-old-pictograph-gobeklitepe-003441#ixzz3iEvsJ3Mj 

Alien Visitation Evidence: The Most Amazing Ancient Objects in the World!

They’re evidence of extraterrestrial visitation, time travelers or lost civilizations like Atlantis – or perhaps they’re here to show us that some ancient peoples were far more advanced than we think. 

It’s hard not to get caught up in the mystery and intrigue of these puzzling and often bizarre ancient objects, most of which simply can’t be explained by modern science.

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1. Antikythera Mechanism

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The world’s oldest computer predates Bill Gates only by about 2,000 years. In fact, the absolutely mind-boggling Antikythera Mechanism – a corroded clocklike object found among the ruins of a sunken ship – may prove that advanced scientific technology existed far earlier than we ever thought possible. 

Scientists have since discovered that this mysterious Greek invention predicted solar eclipses, organized the calendar in four-year cycles, and may well be linked to renowned astrologer and engineer Archimedes. Though no other such mechanisms have ever been found, experts believe that many more made around the same time in 100 B.C.E. once existed.

The mechanism was finally reconstructed after using advanced X-ray and other scanning techniques to examine it.

The Reconstruction

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Antikythera Working Models
Virtual 3D:

The First Model to Incorporate All the Main Features:

Lego Reconstruction:

2. The Baigong Pipes

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“Alien toilet found in China”. This is just one of many absurd headlines seen on the internet concerning the undoubtedly bizarre Baigong Pipes, rusty red iron pipes that lead into a pyramid atop Mount Baigong from a nearby salt water lake. 

What’s so strange about the pipes? Well, for one thing, they’re in an area that is completely inhospitable to man – no civilization is ever known to have lived there. They’re uniform in size and seem to have been created in an intentional pattern. No clear explanation exists for the presence of these pipes, and scientists don’t seem to agree on whether they could be natural occurrences.

The Baigong Pipes are described as a sophisticated system of metal pipes, buried in geology in such a way that precludes the possibility of having been installed in modern times. They are located on Mt. Baigong in the Qinghai province of China, about 40 kilometers southwest of Delingha. Most accounts describe a pyramid-shaped outcropping on the mountain, and the cave containing the pipes is on this pyramid.

80 meters from the mouth of this cave is a salt lake (the twin of an adjacent freshwater lake), and more pipes can be found poking up along the shore.

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Most of the information you can find online about the Baigong Pipes appears to be originally sourced from a 2002 article from the ‘Xinhua News Agency’, talking about preparations by a team of scientists about to embark to this remote area to study the pipes. “Nature is harsh here,” said one. 

“There are no residents let alone modern industry in the area, only a few migrant herdsmen to the north of the mountain.”

3. The Roman Dodecahedra

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These fist-sized bronze Roman artifacts found in France, Switzerland and Germany pose a fascinating problem for archaeologists: they just don’t have a clear purpose, but many are covered in symbols, some undecipherable and others relating to the Zodiac. But for all the speculation on their use, including that they may have been surveying instruments, some experts believe the Roman dodecahedra were merely decorative candlesticks.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_dodecahedron

4. Baghdad Battery

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What need would ancient people have for batteries when electronics did not yet exist? Found outside Baghdad, Iraq in 1936, the Baghdad Battery is a small clay jar containing an iron rod suspended in a copper cylinder which is soldered shut and sealed with asphalt. Replicas that have been made since then can produce small mounts of electricity, proving the battery’s capabilities, but the question of what the battery was used for many never be answered.

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5. The Piri Reis Map

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Probably the most famous ‘Out of the place Artifact’ in the world! Compiled in 1513 from military intelligence by the Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. The half of the map which survives shows the western coasts of Europe and North Africa and the coast of Brazil with reasonable accuracy. Various Atlantic islands including the Azores and Canary Islands are depicted, as is the mythical island of Antillia and possibly Japan. The map has been used to claim an ancient knowledge of an ice-free Antarctica, transmitted either from extra-terrestrials or an Ice Age civilization.

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Short Documentary from History Channel about the Antikythera, the Baghdad Battery and Piri Reis Map:

6. The Voynich Manuscript

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The Voynich manuscript is a handwritten book thought to have been written in the early 15th century and comprising about 240 vellum pages, most with illustrations. Although many possible authors have been proposed, the author, script, and language remain unknown. It has been described as “the world’s most mysterious manuscript”.

Generally presumed to be some kind of ciphertext, the Voynich manuscript has been studied by many professional and amateur cryptographers, including American and British codebreakers from both World War I and World War II. 

Yet it has defied all decipherment attempts, becoming a historical cryptology cause célèbre. The mystery surrounding it has excited the popular imagination, making the manuscript a subject of both fanciful theories and novels.

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Because nobody was able to decrypt the writing code used in this manuscript and because many drawings seem to follow a sacred geometry pattern, many speculate its origin to be extraterrestrial.

7. The Giant Stone Spheres of Costa Rica (and all over the planet)

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They appear to be flawlessly round, ranging in size from just a few centimeters to over 6.6 feet in diameter, and are found all over the Diquis Delta and Isla de Cano in Costa Rica. Weighing up to 16 tons, it’s hard to imagine how humans could have moved these gigantic sculptures hewn from hard granodiorite – considering that the nearest quarry for that material is over 50 miles away from where the sculptures were found. 

Over three hundred of them are scattered across Costa Rica, but we’ll never know why – the people who made them back in 1,000 C.E. are long gone and had no written records.

http://humansarefree.com/2011/04/incredible-alien-visitation-proof-most.html?m=0