10 Remarkable Advanced Ancient Technologies Ahead Of Their Times



 Could Ancient Peruvians Soften Stone?


peru stones
Sacsayhuamán is a citadel on the northern outskirts of the city of Cusco, Peru, the historic capital of the Inca Empire.

Archaeologists and other scientists have been scratching their heads trying to figure out how remarkable ancient Peruvian structures like Sacsayhuamán were constructed.

This marvelous structure consists of gigantic stones so heavy that our modern machinery can hardly move and put in place.

Does the key to the puzzle lie in a certain very specific plant that gave the ancient Peruvians possibility to soften stone or is the answer to the mystery access to advanced ancient technology that could melt stone?

According to researchers Jan Peter de Jong , Christopher Jordan Jesus Gamarra, the granite walls in Cuzco show evidence of being heated to a very high degree and vitrified- the outside surface becoming glassy and very smooth.

Based on this observation, Jong, Jordan and Gamarra draw the conclusion that “some sort of high tech device was used to melt stone blocks which were then placed and allowed to cool next to hard, jigsaw-polygonal blocks that were already in place.

Researchers Jong and Jordan propose that several ancient civilizations world-wide were familiar with the high-tech melting of stone technology. They also say that “the stones on some of the ancient streets in Cuzco have been vitrified by some high temperature to give them their characteristic glassy texture. Read more

2. Sound Manipulation


Hal Saflieni hypogeum
Hal Saflieni hypogeum was not a “normal, collective prehistoric rock-cut tomb”.

The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni inMalta has special significance due to its remarkable acoustic properties. The Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni is an underground cave system covering around 500m² on 3 levels, with various inter-connecting corridors and passageways that lead to a number of small chambers, built between 3000-2500BC. The cave system was re-discovered in 1902 and since then there has been particular interest in one of the rooms, named the “Oracle Chamber”. With its ceilings intact, the underground structure holds secrets of a strange play of sound in the stone rooms and halls; a “forgotten” technology which operates on the human emotional sphere. The space is said to amplify voices dramatically, with certain frequencies resonating enough to be felt through the body.

The Hal Saflieni hypogeum has a dark history. Researchers have discovered the hypogeum of Hal Saflieni contained the bodies of over 7,000 people, a ‘speaking chamber’, trilithons, lintelled-doorways, a large cistern and a ‘holy of holies’ surrounded by ’embryonic’ chambers. What experiments were conducted in this bizarre and mysterious place? Read more

3. The Lycurgus Cup: Fascinating Artifact That Reveals Prehistoric Knowledge Of Nanotechnology


lycurgus cup
The Lycurgus cup.

This amazing artifact clearly shows that our ancestors were far ahead of their time. In fact they were so advanced that they may even have been inventors of what we today call nanotechnology.

This extraordinary cup is the only surviving complete example made from dichroic glass, which changes colour when held up to the light. When light is shone through the body of the cup it turns from opaque green to a glowing translucent red. The glass contains tiny amounts of colloidal gold and silver, which give it these unusual optical properties. Read more

Another good example revealing our ancestors were familiar with nanotechnology are the strange microscopically small nanospirals within material that had to be at least 100,000 years old have been detected in several places, during a routine investigation of mineral deposits in the Ural Mountains in 1992.

The origin of these extraordinary but strange artifacts that the human eye can barely see – is still not explained. Read more

4. Batteries In The Ancient World


bagdad battery
Ancient Baghdad batteries.

A small, undecorated artifact with rather plain appearance, is believed by some scientists to be an example of a prehistoric, electrical power source. It’s the so-called Baghdad Battery, also known as the Parthian Battery.

The artifact – thought to be a 2,000-year-old electric battery – was found in 1936 by railroad workers in the area of Tel Khujut Rabu, south of Baghdad.

Most sources date the batteries to around 200 BC, but the first known electric battery – the Voltaic pile – was not invented by Italian physicist Alessandro Volta until 1799.

The bottoms of these mysterious cylinders were capped with copper discs and sealed with bitumen or asphalt. Another insulating layer of bitumen sealed the tops of the pots and held in place iron rods suspended into the center of the copper cylinders.

The rods showed a strong evidence of having been corroded by an acid solution that evaporated long ago. Read more

5. Incredible Ancient Metallurgical Wonders



Iron pillar in India
The column in India – made up of 98% wrought iron of impure quality – not in any way welded together – seems to have been forged as a single, gigantic piece of iron.

The Antediluvians had technologies that matched our own; there are also serious indications that in certain areas they even possessed extraordinary knowledge, which has only hardly been nudged by our present-day science.

Highly advanced hardening techniques of the ancients as well as ancient castings of large pieces were widespread in antiquity. Our ancestors were in possession of an extremely sophisticated scientific knowledge of metalworking from an earlier civilization and evidence of this knowledge was found in different parts of the world.

China with a long history in metallurgy, was the earliest civilization that manufactured cast iron and some of the ancient Chinese feats of casting iron are so impressive as to be almost unbelievable.

Ancient Indians, for example, produced iron capable of withstanding corrosion, most likely due to the high phosphorus content of the iron produced during those times.

A column of cast iron 23 feet (7 meters) high, weighing approximately 6 tons with diameter of 16.4 inches stands in the courtyard of Kutb Minar in Delhi, India.

An inscription in the Sanskrit language informs that the column was originally erected in the temple of Muttra and capped with Garuda – “Messenger of the Gods” – an image of the bird incarnation of the god Vishnu, the Indian god known as “The Preserver”. Read more

6. Proof Of Superior Ancient Drilling Holes Technology – Found In All Four Corners Of The World


ancient drilling hole technology
All kind of stones (even the hardest ones) were drilled for architectural, ritualistic or symbolic functions.

This incredible technology was widespread in antiquity and evidence of it can be found in all corners of the world. Prehistoric builders used stones, the toughest surfacing material found on Earth to create perfectly round holes.

This impressive cutting-holes-in-stone technique reveals our ancestors were familiar with an extremely advanced technology we have long been unable to use.

Large-sized holes found in ancient stone demanded engineering skills and proper cutting equipment. Read more

7. Legendary Viking Crystal Sunstones Helped Vikings To Navigate


Viking crystal stone
In Viking times the magical Sun Stone showed sailors road when the sun went down.

The Norse sagas mention a mysterious “sunstone” – a magical stone which showed sailors road when the sun disappeared.

Now researchers say the stone is real and it’s a special crystal. One of the reasons why the existences of sunstones have long been disputed is because they are contained in the saga of Saint Olaf, a tale with many magical elements.

However, this has changed and now. Sunstones can no longer be considered just a myth. Archaeologists have discovered a special crystal that suggests legendary Viking sunstones did exists in reality. Read more

8. Ancient Sophisticated Mercury-Based Gilding That We Still Can’t Reach


ancient electroplating artifact
Sometimes, the technology was used to apply real gold and silver. It also was used fraudulently, to make cheap metal statues that look like solid gold or silver.

Ancients were in possession of very sophisticated knowledge. Ancient gold and silversmiths used mercury, which was produced more than 8,000 years ago in Turkey. Mercury was used for gilding (domes, interiors of cathedrals, religious figures and more) in many parts of the ancient world.

Many of the ancients’ techniques are still unknown. They were so skilled that some of the quality they achieved has still not been matched.

In ancient times, these sophisticated methods were used to produce and decorate different types of artefacts, such as jewels, statues, amulets, and commonly-used objects. Gilders performed these processes not only to decorate objects but also to simulate the appearance of gold or silver, sometimes fraudulently. From a technological point of view, the aim of these workmen over 2000 years ago was to make the precious metal coatings as thin and adherent as possible. This was in order to save expensive metals and to improve the resistance to the wear caused by continued use and circulation.

Recent findings confirm the high level of competence reached by the ancient artists and craftsmen and stresses an artistic quality of the objects they produced could not be bettered in ancient times and has not yet been reached in modern ones. Read more

9. Ancient Computer: Enigmatic Antikythera Mechanism Still Full Of Secrets


Researchers have long debated where the device was built, and by whom.

In 1900, an amazing encrusted bronze object of undetermined use was found on the small island of Antikythera, 25 miles northwest of Crete. One of the curious scientists decided to clean it and found that it was a complex instrument with cog-wheels fitting one into another.

Finely graduated circles and inscriptions marked on the instrument in ancient Greek were apparently related to its function. Based on the cargo, it was dated to about the 1st century BC.

It seemed to be a sort of astronomical clock without pendulum but no Greek or Roman writer has ever described such an ancient computer, though many other wonders of antiquity are mentioned. Read more

10. Highly Advanced Robots In Ancient China


robots in ancient china
There are many examples of robots that were created in ancient China.

In ancient China we come across a number of highly advanced robots that could sing, dance, act like servants and perform many other surprising tasks.

Some of these remarkable robots are even said to have possessed life-like organs such as bones, muscles, joints, skin and hair.

It’s a quite remarkable considering it is only recently our modern civilization has started to develop human-like robots.

There is no doubt mechanical engineering in ancient China reached a very high level.


El mensaje de Chilbolton ‘Arecibo’

Paul Vigay examina la formación Chilbolton ‘Arecibo’ de 2001 y la compara con la transmisión original de SETI.

El martes 21 de agosto de 2001 se reportaron dos nuevas formaciones de cultivos cerca del radiotelescopio Chilbolton en Hampshire, Reino Unido. Ambos eran muy impresionante aspecto y consistió en un gran número de pequeños “píxeles”, que cuando se ve desde el aire formó una forma reconocible – a diferencia de muchas otras formaciones de cultivos.

Uno representaba un “rostro humano” y el otro se parecía a una transmisión de radio que la SETI (la Búsqueda de Inteligencia Extra Terrestre) envió desde el radiotelescopio de Arecibo en 1974. Esta última formación será examinada en este artículo, en la que espero no sólo describen y explican la transmisión original, sino también para examinar y decodificar una serie de cambios significativos que se producen en la formación del cultivo.

Después de hablar con los testigos, parecería que la formación ‘Arecibo’ fue creada el 20 de agosto. Aunque pude describir el patrón binario de la formación a partir de fotografías aéreas, algunos aspectos no eran suficientemente claros para distinguir los “dígitos” individuales. Por lo tanto he visitado ambas formaciones yo (están a unos 200 metros de distancia en el mismo campo) el sábado 25 de agosto de 2001.

El mensaje de Arecibo

Primero, daré algunos antecedentes al mensaje original enviado desde Arecibo, en 1974.

Arecibo está en la costa norte de Puerto Rico y contiene un agujero natural en forma de disco en la roca. Dentro de este cuenco se construyó el radio-telescopio más grande del mundo, con un diámetro de 1000 pies.

En 1974 se realizaron varias modificaciones al transmisor, lo que le permitió emitir señales con una potencia de hasta 20 terawatts (1 terawatt = 1 billón de vatios) y como prueba inaugural de estas mejoras, SETI decidió transmitir un mensaje codificado a los cielos. Esta señal estaba dirigida hacia el cúmulo estelar globular M13, a unos 25.000 años luz de distancia y que consta de unas 300.000 estrellas en la constelación de Hércules.

El mensaje fue realmente transmitido el 16 de noviembre de 1974 y consistió en 1679 pulsos de código binario (0 y 1) – que tomó un poco menos de tres minutos para transmitir. Se transmitió en una frecuencia de 2380MHz (que es significativo más adelante).

¿Por qué 1679 dígitos?

La razón de esto es hasta matemáticas. 1679 es el producto único de dos números primos; 23 y 73. Cualquier forma de vida suficientemente inteligente buscaría sin duda construcciones únicas y universales, tales como números primos, frecuencias de elementos químicos y dígitos binarios.

No hay que olvidar que porque podríamos estar tratando de comunicarnos con una inteligencia completamente diferente a la nuestra, no podemos hablar en términos de sistemas ‘humanos’, como centímetros, pies, números decimales, etc.

Debido a que SOLAMENTE los dos números primos 23 y 73, cuando se multiplican juntos, producen 1679, sólo puede haber una única forma de ordenar la señal, si se la convierte en una cuadrícula de matriz – 23 cuadrados por 73 cuadrados.

El código binario original se muestra en la figura 1.


Codificación binaria


Con el fin de comprender plenamente el mensaje codificado en la transmisión, es esencial entender el código binario. Esto es en realidad mucho más simple que nuestra base 10, sistema decimal.

Mientras que en la base 10 contamos de 1 a 9 y luego llevamos 1 a la columna de los 10 y comenzamos de nuevo en la columna de unidades, hasta que tengamos 9 en la columna de los 10 y 9 en la columna de las unidades. Entonces tenemos que llevar 1 en la columna de los 100 y empezar de nuevo en los 10 y las columnas de las unidades, y así sucesivamente y así sucesivamente.

En binario cada columna sube en potencias de 2, por lo tanto las columnas son unidades, 2, 4, 8, 16, etc. Debido a que sólo podemos tratar en 1 y 0, avanzamos rápidamente a través de las columnas, porque tan pronto como superamos 1 que llevamos en la siguiente columna.

Para un ejemplo de contar en binario, vea la tabla a la derecha.

Para volver a la transmisión original de los pulsos binarios (fig.1), convirtiéndolo en 23 columnas de 73 filas obtenemos la matriz mostrada en la figura 2

Ahora puede ver un patrón gráfico representado por los 1 y 0 del código. Para mayor claridad he convertido esto en cuadrados negros (que representan 1’s) y blancos (vacíos) cuadrados (que representan 0’s).



Aquí es donde un ligero rompecabezas se hace visible. Mediante la realización de los pasos descritos anteriormente, la traducción literal de los impulsos originales está a la izquierda de la figura 3. Sin embargo, la imagen impresa en un par de mis libros es la que se muestra a la derecha de la figura 3. Éste es un exacto izquierdo-derecho imagen especular de mi decodificación. Sospecho que esto es posiblemente un error que no se notó cuando el libro fue a imprimir – aunque he comprobado dos libros que representan el mismo patrón que se muestra a la derecha de la figura 3.

El patrón que ocurrió en el campo de cultivo de Chilbolton es la misma imagen que se muestra en los libros (es decir, el de la derecha de la figura 3 y la imagen especular de la decodificación original). Esto podría implicar que si alguien engañó a la formación, copiaron el patrón incorrecto impreso en un libro. Alternativamente, puedo haber convertido los pulsos originales trazando de izquierda a derecha al convertir en una rejilla 23×73, en vez de ir de derecha a izquierda – que personalmente no parece correcta a mi interpretación de la secuencia binaria original.

Si alguien puede explicar esta discrepancia, me encantaría escuchar sus comentarios. Sin embargo, a los efectos del resto de este artículo me referiré al patrón físicamente establecido en el campo de cultivo. Los resultados son los mismos porque el código actual permanece inalterado independientemente de si es el original o una imagen de espejo de todos modos, ya que la codificación binaria permanece inalterada.

Descodificar el mensaje original


El mensaje original estaba compuesto de varias “secciones”, cada una representando un aspecto particular de “nuestra civilización”. En la parte superior están representaciones binarias de los números uno a diez, curiosamente mostrando los números ocho, nueve y diez como dos columnas. Esto muestra a cualquier persona que descodifica el mensaje que podemos especificar que los números demasiado grandes para ser escritos en una sola línea pueden ser “transferidos”.

La siguiente sección contiene los valores binarios 1,6,7,8 y 15 que indican los números atómicos de los elementos primarios para la vida en la Tierra; Hidrógeno, carbono, nitrógeno, oxígeno y fósforo, respectivamente.

La sección más grande de tres filas, representan las fórmulas para los azúcares y bases en los nucleótidos de ADN. Debajo de esto hay una representación gráfica de nuestro ADN ‘doble hélice’ a cada lado de una ‘barra vertical recta’ que indica el número de nucleótidos en el ADN.

Directamente por debajo de la doble hélice de ADN hay una pequeña representación de nosotros – humanos – con un cuerpo y dos brazos y dos piernas (como un pequeño hombre de palo). A la izquierda es un valor binario de la población de la Tierra.

Esto se calcula en aproximadamente 4.29 mil millones, que es aproximadamente la población del mundo, en 1974. A la derecha de la forma humanoide hay un código binario para la altura de los humanos. Debido a que no podemos comunicarnos en mediciones ‘humanas’ (tales como pies y pulgadas), la altura se representa en ‘unidades de longitud de onda’. Como se mencionó anteriormente, el mensaje real se transmitió en 2380MHz.

Para convertirlo en una longitud de onda dividimos en 300, para obtener una longitud de onda en metros. 300/2380 = 0,12605042m = 12,6 cm. Esta es nuestra ‘unidad de longitud de onda’. Desde el código de la altura de un humano, podemos ver que el valor es 1110 en binario, o 14 en decimal. Si multiplicamos 14 por nuestra unidad de longitud de onda (12.6) obtenemos 176.4cm, o aproximadamente 5’9 “- la altura promedio de los seres humanos.

La siguiente sección es una representación simplificada de nuestro Sistema Solar – donde vivimos. Muestra el sol y nueve planetas, aproximadamente representativos del tamaño. Al mover el tercer planeta hacia arriba ligeramente destaca que algo es significativo sobre el tercer planeta desde el Sol – la Tierra.

La última sección representa el origen del propio mensaje: el radiotelescopio de Arecibo, que es la estructura curva. Debajo de esto, como las dos últimas líneas del mensaje, es otro número binario. Esta vez es 100101111110 (dividida en dos líneas en el centro) y equivale a 2430 en decimal. Nuevamente, usando nuestras unidades de longitud de onda universales obtenemos 2430 * 12.6cm que es 30618cm – o aproximadamente 1000 ‘, el diámetro del plato de radio de Arecibo.

¿Qué es diferente en la formación de cultivos?

Después de un extenso análisis he descubierto nueve grandes discrepancias entre lo que vemos en el campo de cultivos de Chilbolton y el mensaje original que transmitimos a las estrellas en 1974. Dejaré cualquier interpretación hasta más tarde, pero por ahora solo destacar las diferencias.

El detalle exacto de estos cambios no pudo ser confirmado hasta que en realidad visitó la formación sobre el terreno, con el fin de comprobar con precisión la lectura de código binario de cultivo aplanado como un 0 y los cuadrados de cultivo de pie como 1. En lugar de señalar las diferencias en el orden de importancia o algo, simplemente comenzaré en la parte superior del patrón y trabajaré hacia abajo.

Los números 1 a 10 aparecen exactamente iguales en la formación.

Sin embargo, los números atómicos que indican los elementos predominantes que componen la vida en la Tierra, tiene un valor adicional insertado en la secuencia binaria. Esto se agrega con precisión en la ubicación correcta, y en el código binario original (por lo tanto, no puede ser un error). Decodificación de la formación de cultivos, este elemento adicional tiene un número atómico de 14 = Silicio.

Moviéndose hacia abajo, el siguiente cambio es obvio: consiste en una hebra extra en el lado izquierdo de la doble hélice del ADN. Otro cambio, menos obvio, está en la codificación binaria del número de nucleótidos en el propio ADN (en el centro). Si miras en el diagrama anterior, he resaltado los cambios con mayor precisión a la derecha, usando cuadrados rojos y contornos para indicar qué “dígitos” se han cambiado en la formación de los cultivos.

Hay cambios bastante significativos en la forma del humanoide, que se vuelve casi “ajeno-como” y al diagrama del plato de Arecibo. Para mayor claridad, no me he molestado en revisarlas en rojo porque las diferencias son fácilmente evidentes.

De cualquier lado de lo que ahora es un ET, hay cambios tanto en la figura de “población” y también el valor de altura. Este último es ahora 1000 en binario, o 8. Si multiplicamos esto por la “unidad de longitud de onda” original obtendremos 8 * 12.6cm = 100.8cm que es aproximadamente 3’4 “- interesante, porque esto se correlaciona con las cuentas de testigos ET.

Debajo de esto observamos cambios adicionales en la tabla del Sistema Solar. El tercer planeta del sol no es el único ‘resaltado’ ahora. El cuarto y el quinto están también. El quinto incluso parece ser enfatizado aún más, con tres “píxeles” adicionales. Por último, lo que era representativo del transmisor de Arecibo en el mensaje original es aún más críptico e implicaría una versión esquemática de la formación que apareció en el mismo campo en Chilbolton el año pasado, en 2000. Esto se puede ver en mi base de datos, reference uk2000ee.

El código binario para el tamaño del transmisor también se altera. Dejaré al lector para calcular el nuevo valor ….

Que significa todo esto?

Dudo de hacer demasiada interpretación, prefiriendo compartir la investigación y la información con la que permitir a los lectores continuar la búsqueda de respuestas y promover sus propios conocimientos.

Sin embargo, hay algunas implicaciones bastante obvias de la formación de cultivos. En primer lugar, y bastante obvio desde la vista aérea es la forma de la figura ET. Esto claramente tiene el pequeño palo-como el cuerpo con dos brazos y dos piernas, pero tiene una cabeza mucho más grande y dos ojos distintos. Esto es casi una reminiscencia de los “grises” de la cultura popular OVNI. De hecho, el código modificado ‘altura’ que corresponde a poco más de tres pies también confirmaría este aspecto.

Si decodificas la secuencia binaria ‘población’ en la formación actual de cultivos, obtienes un valor aproximado de 21.300 millones – mucho más grande que la transmisión original, y de hecho la población actual de la Tierra? Tal vez esta es la población de su propio planeta, o incluso la población combinada humanidad ET de la Tierra – si usted cree, como algunos investigadores, que la Tierra ya está poblada por una contingencia ET invisible? Si usted asume que las alteraciones a la sección ‘Sistema Solar’ en la formación de cultivos se refieren a varios planetas, entonces esto también podría indicar la población combinada de planetas habitados en alguna parte. Dejo esto para que el lector decida.

También hay alguna indicación de un cambio en la estructura básica del ADN de ET. La tercera (tercera) cadena adicional mostrada a la izquierda y también un cambio en el número de nucleótidos indica un ADN diferente al nuestro. Parece bastante similar a la nuestra, así que tal vez sea una alteración genética o incluso una mutación nuestra?

La diferencia en la información del Sistema Solar podría indicar uno de dos escenarios; O bien todavía se refiere a nuestro propio Sistema Solar, pero además de destacar la Tierra también está destacando el cuarto y quinto planetas – Marte y Júpiter. Por supuesto, el punto culminante adicional en el “quinto planeta” podría referirse realmente al cinturón de asteroides que se encuentra entre Marte y Júpiter y es en realidad el “quinto elemento” del sol. Alternativamente, podría no corresponder a nuestro propio Sistema Solar en absoluto, sino al propio sistema solar del ET – que también parecería consistir en nueve planetas.

El sol también se representa en la formación de cultivos como ligeramente más pequeño. ¿Podría ser su sol más pequeño, o se podría suponer que representa algún punto de nuestro propio futuro – quizás cuando el sol se ha vuelto más pequeño y hemos poblado a los otros planetas? Esta última idea, aunque altamente especulativa, podría incluso indicar la modificación del ADN a través de experimentos genéticos aumentados ….?

La representación de la formación de los últimos años en lugar del plato de Arecibo es posiblemente la más difícil de interpretar. Podría indicar una serie de cosas, o simplemente indicar que ET vio la formación del año pasado y vio que como representante de la casa del mensaje – es decir, Chilbolton.

Sin embargo, si nos fijamos en todo el mensaje en un nivel más filosófico, todo está centrado en la comunicación – y notificar los cielos de nuestra existencia. ¿Podría ser la representación de un círculo de cultivo (la forma, simplemente elegida porque era la que estaba en la misma ubicación de origen del mensaje) para indicar que los círculos de cultivo son de hecho una forma de comunicación? Independientemente del origen de esta formación, no se puede disputar el hecho de que las personas de todo el mundo se están comunicando más debido a sus experiencias de círculo de cultivo!

Por último, una diferencia significativa que también me parece muy intrigante, y que puedo revelar exclusivamente por primera vez, se refiere a la tabla en la parte superior que contiene los números atómicos. El círculo de cultivo tiene una columna adicional agregada. Sin embargo, como se mencionó anteriormente, no es un error porque se vuelve a codificar y se inserta en la secuencia correcta. ¿Silicio? ¿Podría esto ser un indicador adicional a la fisiología de ET? Tal vez ET es una forma de vida basada en silicio en lugar de carbono basado, como nosotros?

No he explicado completamente todas las discrepancias, simplemente porque estoy deliberadamente manteniendo un par de aspectos sutiles de nuevo para que podamos pedir más explicación, si alguien lo afirman como un engaño. Debo señalar en este punto que la calidad real de la formación sobre el terreno era notablemente buena. Sin embargo, parecía haber sido aplanado en términos de una rejilla – es decir. pasando por la formación y por la formación. La cercana formación de “cara” era más elaborada en términos de la posición de tierra, ya que cada círculo individual parecía haber sido girado por separado al resto de la formación, indicado por un suave remolino de cultivo alrededor de cada círculo, en lugar de ser cepillado a través del formando caminos entre cada círculo. Sin embargo, ambas formaciones representan un inmenso esfuerzo requerido para retratar lo que vemos en el campo y desde el aire. Crear dentro de las limitaciones de unas pocas horas de oscuridad es extremadamente impresionante, independientemente de su origen; terrestre o extraterrestre.


Other links: (updated 11th Aug 2002)

Archaeologists find 12,000-year-old pictograph at Gobeklitepe


Excavations being conducted at the ancient city of Göbeklitepe in Turkey have uncovered an ancient pictograph on an obelisk which researchers say could be the earliest known pictograph ever discovered.

pictograph is an image that conveys meaning through its resemblance to a physical object. Such images are most commonly found in pictographic writing, such as hieroglyphics or other characters used by ancient Sumerian and Chinese civilizations. Some non-literate cultures in parts of Africa, South America and Oceania still use them.

“The scene on the obelisk unearthed in Göbeklitepe could be construed as the first pictograph because it depicts an event thematically” explained Director of the Şanlıurfa Museum, Müslüm Ercan, to the Hurriyet Daily News. Ercan is leading the excavation at Göbeklitepe. “It depicts a human head in the wing of a vulture and a headless human body under the stela. There are various figures like cranes and scorpions around this figure. This is the portrayal of a moment; it could be the first example of pictograph. They are not random figures. We see this type of thing portrayal on the walls in 6,000-5,000 B.C. in Çatalhöyük [in modern-day western Turkey].”


The ‘Vulture-Stone’. Credit: Alistair Coombs

The artifacts discovered in the ancient city have provided information about ancient burial traditions in the area in which bodies were left in the open for raptors such as vultures to consume. According to Mr Ercan, this enabled the soul of the deceased to be carried into the sky. It was called “burial in the sky” and was depicted on the obelisks in Göbeklitepe. Such rituals were conducted in and around the city around 12,000 years ago.
Many of the items discovered on the site have not been seen before anywhere else in the world and thus are the first of their kind to be discovered.

Göbeklitepe is situated on the top of a hill about 15 kilometres away from Sanliurfa in South-eastern Turkey. The city can be dated back to 10,000 BC and consists of a series of circular and oval shaped structures that were first excavated by Professor Klaus Schmidt supported by the German Archaeological Institute. Schmidt travelled to the site having heard about it from accounts of other previous visits by anthropologists from the University of Chicago and Istanbul University in the 1960’s. Both institutions ignored the site, believing it to be nothing more than a medieval graveyard.

Artifacts found on the site indicate that the city was intended for ritual use only and not as a domain for human occupation. Each of the 20 structures consists of a ring of walls surrounding two T-shaped monumental pillars between 3 metres (9 feet) and 6 metres high (19 feet) and weighing between 40 and 60 tons.


Enormous T-shaped pillars at Göbeklitepe. Credit: Alistair Coombs

Archaeologists believe these pillars are stylised representations of human beings because of the human appendages carved into the stone. These images are accompanied by those of animals including foxes, snakes, wild boars, cranes and ducks.  

The archaeologists believe Göbeklitepe was used as a religious centre. Geo-radar work has revealed evidence of 23 temple structures in the area. Two of the obelisks in the city were constructed in the form of a letter T and are positioned opposite each other within a circle of smaller, round obelisks.

Ercan said that the museum at Şanlıurfa contains a small sculpture of a pig that was discovered in front of the central stelas in the ‘C’ temple at Göbeklitepe. Such statues may have depicted sacred beings.

Work on the basic infrastructure of a roof to cover the site and help preserve its structures and artefacts has just been completed, ready for the construction of the roof itself. This is an EU project and the archaeologists aim to complete it in eight months’ time. 

Read more: http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/archaeologists-find-12000-year-old-pictograph-gobeklitepe-003441#ixzz3iEvsJ3Mj 

Atlantis Revealed: Plato’s Cautionary Tale Was Based On A Real Setting








The time is 360 BC, the dawn of Western civilization. Athens, the cradle of democracy, is the epicenter of the ancient world. In his dialogues of Timaeus and Critias, Plato introduces a tale of an advanced prehistoric civilization, which since has captivated the imagination of every generation that followed. This was the story of Atlantis, an idyllic island paradise of skillful navigators who often crossed the Atlantic to explore. Atlantis, according to Plato, was ultimately lost to the sea. Its memory, though, was not soon forgotten.

For two millennia, people unsuccessfully kept on searching for the legendary island, making Atlantis one of the most lasting and fascinating stories of all time! What about those, however, who over time claim to have found the lost island? The truth is, no one until now was able to introduce a site that perfectly matched Plato’s description. Instead, we have theories upon theories on the whereabouts of Atlantis. Why though? If everyone utilizes the same textbook, why the apparent confusion? Can this be a case of gross misinterpretation among researchers, or did early translators fail to properly capture and relay Plato’s account? And, what about the chronological conflict that exists in Plato’s account?

Let’s take the original Santorini hypothesis, for example. Unquestionably, the island of Santorini, its volcanic eruption and the advanced Minoan civilization, was the best we had on Atlantis until recently. This was never a flawless hypothesis, though. Always a big problem with that theory was the fact that Plato’s given chronology of 9600 BC had to be discarded (as Athens and most story details did not belong in that period). There is another bigger problem with that theory, though. While Santorini itself undeniably matches the site where the crown city of Atlantis once stood (talking about the concentric rings of earth and water) the problem is, Santorini alone never matched Plato’s entire description. The primary island of Atlantis, one Plato said was to be 9 kilometers away, is missing from the particular setting of 1600 BC. These major flaws allowed for critics to raise doubts on that hypothesis, and to continue to question the validity of Plato’s story.

Of course, serious research on Atlantis was never simple. Science fiction authors, movies and other creative works of popular culture, eventually capitalized on the story’s popularity, and contrary to Plato’s account, over time they turned Atlantis into an ultra-modern society with flying machines and technology far beyond our own.

Nonetheless, eventually every search comes to an end. Recently, a four year study that included a thorough analysis of Plato’s work established that serious errors by early translators allowed for the mixed messages in the translated document.

The recent study not only decisively placed Atlantis in the Mediterranean Sea, but, it concluded with the discovery and identification of a submerged prehistoric island that in every way matches Plato’s Atlantis. While in the past finding Atlantis was thought to be more difficult than winning the lottery, now there is a tangible site where all the physical characteristics of the given description match. The topography, the given chronology, the volcanic geology, the flora and fauna in that period, the island’s destruction by a great flood, the presence of an unknown prehistoric civilization in the area, and DNA evidence all point to a genuine discovery.

More specifically, the study shows that around 9600 BC, when according to Plato Atlantis was above water, the modern Cyclades Islands were connected by the Cyclades Plateau, a flat terrain (now 400 feet below sea level,) that formed the body of a huge island. When this prehistoric island is compared to Plato’s Atlantis, it immediately becomes evident that this must have been the land Plato was talking about. Its northern region was comprised of mountains that reached the shores. Below the mountainous region there was an oblong valley measuring 555 Km2. Below the oblong valley there was a smaller valley, 2/3 the size of the oblong valley that measured 370 Km2. This was the primary island. Nine kilometers away from the primary island, and precisely as Plato depicted, lies the island of Santorini, a circular island with a flooded core and a small island in its center (Santorini, an island within an island setting, a sea volcano with a collapsed center, prior to the volcanic eruption of 1600 BC had a single opening on its outer ring that allowed ships to enter its watery caldera).

Plato's Atlantis

Plato’s Atlantis

Atlantis area map

Atlantis area map

The consequence in finding Atlantis at around 9600 BC leaves no doubt that Plato based his story on a real setting and a prehistoric civilization known to ancient Greeks, which in order to successfully communicate some of his philosophical ideas (divine vs. human, ideal societies vs. corrupt,) he filled with familiar matter from later times, including details from the Minoan era of which he was more familiar with. The existence of a matching site at around 9600 BC, in essence, proves that Plato did exactly what Homer did with Troy 400 years before him. (Homer’s Iliad was an entirely fictional story that revolved around a real setting and a historical incident that took place 600 years before Homer himself.)

Atlantis - Book Extract

The super-island of the Cyclades Plateau (Plato’s Atlantis) was drowned by the sea at around 8000 BC, during the rapid rise of the Mediterranean and just prior to the flooding of the Black Sea (see UNESCO study, 2009.) Incidentally, around this time, Lake Agassiz, a gigantic glacial lake in North America, also burst open and began to drain into the Atlantic. It is worth noting that Lake Agassiz covered an area larger than all the Great Lakes combined (440,000 Km2) and at times, it contained more fresh water than all the lakes in the world today. The total fresh water outflow from this lake alone was so immense, scientists believe it raised the oceans worldwide by as much as nine feet and further produced the 8.2 kilo-year event that followed, a mini ice age that lasted 400 years! This global cataclysm at the end of the last Ice Age, which ultimately raised sea levels by 400 feet, not only erased our early history, but this could also be the event we all inadvertently refer to as the “Great Flood.”

As for the island/continent across from the Pillars of Hercules, one larger than Libya and Asia combined, the latest study demonstrates how Plato’s reference of the American continent got misconstrued into that of Atlantis. The mention of the continent across the Atlantic, “one that encompassed that veritable ocean,” was Plato’s poetic attempt to demonstrate Atlantis’s incredible naval capability and its capacity to cross the ocean via island hopping (through Scotland, Orkney Islands, Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.) Several clues and archeological evidence actually confirm that the ancient Greeks were aware of the American continent in order for Plato to include it in his story.

Crossing the Atlantic via island hopping

Crossing the Atlantic via island hopping

The implications of locating Atlantis in the Mediterranean go beyond the discovery itself. This find not only substantiates Plato’s claim of prehistoric transatlantic crossings, but may finally help explain how the Mediterranean haplogroup X got to North America 10,000 to 12,000 years ago.

While most geneticists today maintain that haplogroup X walked to America via the Bering Strait, genetic maps show that the furthest region east of the Mediterranean with small traces of haplogroup X, is the Altai Republic in Southern Russia. No traces of haplogroup X exist between Altai Republic and the greater region of the Great Lakes. If haplogroup X infiltrated North America via the Bering Strait, why then does the greatest concentration of haplogroup X (away from the Mediterranean) exist around the Great Lakes and not in Alaska or alongside the west coast? Most importantly, how do we otherwise explain that heavy traces of haplogroup X incidentally also exist in Scotland, Orkney Islands, Faroe islands and Iceland, essentially all the island stops to North America from Europe.

Genetic Map of Haplogroup X

Genetic Map of Haplogroup X

Finally, a 10,000 year old Mediterranean civilization, may help explain more archaeological oddities in this region. Recent erosion and seismic tests at the Giza Plateau, indicated that the Great Sphinx may be much older structure than previously thought, and along with the site of Gobekli Tepe in Turkey, both seem to coincide with Plato’s story of Atlantis. Is it possible that Gobekli Tepe and the monument of The Great Sphinx could be remnants of the same advanced civilization Plato referenced in his story, one that was aggressively advancing against its neighbors in Africa and the Middle East, or do those belong to another culture? And what about the advanced proto-Euphratean people who descended upon the Mesopotamia around 7000 BC, from a region “unknown.” Could these enigmatic people be the refugees of the same culture who fled the Mediterranean basin and moved eastwards to escape the inundation? Undoubtedly, they could have brought with them the story of the great flood as well as the skills and technology to incite yet another great civilization, like that of ancient Sumer (just as the survivors around the Cyclades and neighboring islands may have ultimately contributed to the rise of the Minoans).

Read more: http://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/atlantis-revealed-platos-cautionary-tale-was-based-real-setting-003224#ixzz3dmx6nW5X

Dikteon Cave: The Legendary Birthplace of Zeus


The Dikteon Cave is one of the most important and famous cult places of Minoan Crete.  It is located in the high mountains on the island of Crete in Greece and is associated with the birthplace of the Greek god Zeus.  For centuries it was considered a sacred place of cult worship where offerings were made and few were allowed to enter.  The use of caves as cult places was one of the basic characteristics of the religion of the ancient Cretans, and Dikteon Cave was among the most important and sacred. 

The Dikteon Cave, also known as Psychro Cave (due to its vicinity to the village of Psychro) or Andron Cave, is situated at an altitude of 1025 meters (3360 feet) on the northern slopes of Mount Dicte, which dominates the Lassithi Plateau and the whole of Eastern Crete.  The Lassithi Plateau was inhabited as early as the Neolithic Period and is one of the few sites in the Mediterranean where settlements were at high altitude. 

Dikteon Cave, as it stands today, consists of five chambers with an upper and lower section.  The upper cave or Ano spileo, resembles a rocky cavern and is devoid of stalactites or stalagmites.  A trek down a steep set of stairs 100 meters into the mountainside reveals the lower cave or Kato Spileo.  There is a larger hall on the right, which has small stone basins filled with water that legend says was a drinking spot for the god Zeus.  The most impressive sight is a small lake which is surrounded by large stalactites and stalagmites along the stairwell.  There is also what is known as the “Mantle of Zeus” which is a stalactite that hangs over the lake similar to that of a chandelier.  At the back of the lake there is a small chamber, where it is said that Zeus was born.


The cave of Dikteon (Psychro cave), Crete, 2009. Credit: Jerzy Strzelecki (Wikimedia Commons)

To the ancient Greeks, Zeus was the all-knowing, all seeing deity associated with thunder, lightning, rain and the ruler of all other gods.  He was also the ruler of the sky, the earth and was regarded by the ancient Greeks as the personification of the laws of nature.  He headed a family of twelve other major gods and goddesses called the Olympians and lived on the mythical Mount Olympus, the highest peak in Greece.  In Greek Mythology, Zeus was said to have been born on the island of Crete.  Hesiod, the Greek epic poet who scholars believed lived during the 8th century BC, tells us that the birth of Zeus took place near the city of Lyktos in east-central Crete.  However, he does not specify the precise location of Zeus’s birthplace therefore, two caves, namely the Dikteon and Ideon, both located in the Cretan mountains have been put forward as his place of birth.

Gods and Goddesses of the Greek MythologyTalos –  CreteThe Sacred Omphalos Stone, Navel of the World and Communicator of the Gods.


The cave of Dikteon (Psychro cave), Crete, 2009. Credit: Jerzy Strzelecki (Wikimedia Commons)

According to the ancient tradition as described by Hesoid in Theogony, Cronus, the Titan god of time and ages, and Rhea, the Titan goddess of fertility and motherhood, had five children before Zeus, all of which ended up in the stomach of Cronus.  He ate his offspring out of fear they would take his throne.  When Rhea became pregnant with Zeus, she did not want him to share the same fate and asked her parents Uranus and Gaia for help.  In order to deceive her husband Cronus, Rhea gave him a stone wrapped in swaddling clothes instead of the baby.  He swallowed the supposed infant at once and relaxed certain that his throne was not at risk from his children.  Meanwhile, Zeus grew up in the cave where he remained hidden away in the mountains of Crete from his cannibalistic father. 


Saturn (Cronos) eating one of his children, painting by Rubens 1636-1638. (Wikimedia Commons)

As soon as Rhea gave birth to Zeus she gave him to the Curetes (gods of the wild mountainside) to look after.  So Cronus would not hear the cries of the infant Zeus, the Curetes drowned out his sounds with a frenzied dance of clashing spears and shields.  The goat nurse Amalthea and nymph Melissa also played an important role in his upbringing.  Amalthea, suckled the holy infant from her horn while Melissa nursed Zeus and looked after him, feeding him honey.  Several other myths surround the Dikteon cave, demonstrating its significance to both Crete and ancient Greece.  A lesser known story, speaks of the Harpies or mythical winged maidens that once lived there.

The Mighty Gods Zeus and PoseidonThe Minoan CivilizationTraces of the Minoan Culture from Egypt to Syria

Archaeological evidence has revealed that the Dikteon Cave was used by humans in antiquity.  Excavations to date show uninterrupted human presence in the Dikteon Cave from the end of the Neolithic period onwards or for about the last 6,000 years.  It operated as a cult center from the Minoan to the Archaic Period (2000-700 BC), while worship at the cave continued sporadically until Roman times (1st century BC – 1st century AD).  From the 16th century AD until 1883, the Dikteon Cave was used as a shelter by local shepherds and hunters.  In the late 1800s, some of the secrets of the cave and its cult significance were unearthed by chance. 


Minoan girl, c. 1600-1500 BCE, bronze, Minoan, Crete, Cleveland Museum of Art. Photo taken: 2012 by Wmpearl (Wikimedia Commons)

Joseph Chatzidakis and Italian archaeologist Federico Halbherr carried out the first, small-scale excavations of the site in 1886.  The first systematic excavation began in 1899 by British Archaeologist David Hogarth.  The findings of the cave were published in 1961 by art historian and archaeologist John Boardman.  The excavation found many artifacts such as small statues, tables, double axes, rings, and broaches.  Stone tablets inscribed with Linear A script were found at the site along with religious bronze and clay figurines.  In the antechamber of the Dikteon Cave the foundations of a built altar and the remains of offerings placed in rock crevices were discovered.  Pilgrims made offerings at the site, including olive oil, honey, wine, wheat and animal sacrifices, which were placed on the altar and burnt.  The numerous artifacts are on display at the Heraklion Museum in Heraklion Greece and Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England. Today, Diketeon Cave is a popular tourist attraction that impresses both physically and geologically, and for its rich and fascinating history.

Featured Image: “Zeus and Thetis” Painting by John Duncan, 1811. (Wikimedia Commons)


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“Dikteon Cave.” Or Dikteon Andron or Dictaean Cave. Accessed May 14, 2015. http://www.explorecrete.com/archaeology/dikteon-andron-cave.html.

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“Dikteon Andron | Caves | Nature | Lasithi Prefecture | Regions | WonderGreece.gr.” Http://www.wondergreece.gr/. Accessed May 14, 2015.http://www.wondergreece.gr/v1/en/Regions/Lasithi_Prefecture/Nature/Caves/3919-Dikteon_Andron.