Discoveries Challenge Beliefs on Humans’ Arrival in the Americas

 

 

Video | Humans’ First Appearance in the Americas In Piauí, Brazil, archaeologists say stone tools prove that humans reached what is now Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago, upending a belief that people first arrived about 13,000 years ago.
By SIMON ROMERO

SERRA DA CAPIVARA NATIONAL PARK, Brazil — Niede Guidon still remembers her astonishment when she glimpsed the paintings.

Preserved amid the bromeliad-encrusted plateaus that tower over the thorn forests of northeast Brazil, the ancient rock art depicts fierce battles among tribesmen, orgiastic scenes of prehistoric revelry and hunters pursuing their game, spears in hand.

“These were stunning compositions, people and animals together, not just figures alone,” said Dr. Guidon, 81, remembering what first lured her and other archaeologists in the 1970s to this remote site where jaguars still prowl.

Hidden in the rock shelters where prehistoric humans once lived, the paintings number in the thousands. Some are thought to be more than 9,000 years old and perhaps even far more ancient. Painted in red ocher, they rank among the most revealing testaments anywhere in the Americas to what life was like millenniums before the European conquest began a mere five centuries ago.

Slide Show | Reassessing Human History in the Americas The discovery of stone tools proves that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago, researchers say.

But it is what excavators found when they started digging in the shadows of the rock art that is contributing to a pivotal re-evaluation of human history in the hemisphere.

Researchers here say they have unearthed stone tools proving that humans reached what is now northeast Brazil as early as 22,000 years ago. Their discoveryadds to the growing body of research upending a prevailing belief of 20th-century archaeology in the United States known as the Clovis model, which holds that people first arrived in the Americas from Asia about 13,000 years ago.

“If they’re right, and there’s a great possibility that they are, that will change everything we know about the settlement of the Americas,” said Walter Neves, an evolutionary anthropologist at the University of São Paulo whose own analysis of an11,000-year-old skull in Brazil implies that some ancient Americans resembled aboriginal Australians more than they did Asians.

Up and down the Americas, scholars say that the peopling of lands empty of humankind may have been far more complex than long believed. The radiocarbon dating of spear points found in the 1920s near Clovis, N.M., placed the arrival of big-game hunters across the Bering Strait about 13,000 years ago, long forming the basis of when humans were believed to have arrived in the Americas.

More recently, numerous findings have challenged that narrative. In Texas,archaeologists said in 2011 that they had found projectile points showing that hunter-gatherers had reached another site, known as Buttermilk Creek, as early as 15,500 years ago. Similarly, analysis of human DNA found at an Oregon cave determined that humans were there 14,000 years ago.

But it is in South America, thousands of miles from the New Mexico site where the Clovis spear points were discovered, where archaeologists are putting forward some of the most profound challenges to the Clovis-first theory.

Paleontologists in Uruguay published findings in November suggesting that humans hunted giant sloths there about 30,000 years ago. All the way in southern Chile, Tom D. Dillehay, an anthropologist at Vanderbilt University, has shown that humans lived at a coastal site called Monte Verde as early as 14,800 years ago.

And here in Brazil’s caatinga, a semi-arid region of mesas and canyons, European and Brazilian archaeologists building on decades of earlier excavations said last year that they had found artifacts at a rock shelter showing that humans had arrived in South America almost 10,000 years before Clovis hunters began appearing in North America.

“The Clovis paradigm is finally buried,” said Eric Boëda, the French archaeologist leading the excavations here.

Exposing the tension over competing claims about where and when humans first arrived in the Americas, some scholars in the dwindling Clovis-first camp in the United States quickly rejected the findings.

Gary Haynes, an archaeologist at the University of Nevada, Reno, argued that the stones found here were not tools made by humans, but instead could have become chipped and broken naturally, by rockfall. Stuart Fiedel, an archaeologist with the Louis Berger Group, an environmental consulting company, said that monkeys might have made the tools instead of humans.

“Monkeys, including large extinct forms, have been in South America for 35 million years,” Dr. Fiedel said. He added that the Clovis model was recently bolstered by new DNA analysis ancestrally connecting indigenous peoples in Central and South America to a boy from the Clovis culture whose 12,700-year-old remains were found in 1968 at a site in Montana.

Such dismissive positions have invited equally sharp responses from scholars like Dr. Dillehay, the American archaeologist who discovered Monte Verde. “Fiedel does not know what he is talking about,” he said, explaining that similarities existed between the stone tools found here and at the site across South America in Chile. “To say monkeys produced the tools is stupid.”

Having their findings disputed is nothing new for the archaeologists working at Serra da Capivara. Dr. Guidon, the Brazilian archaeologist who pioneered the excavations, asserted more than two decades ago that her team had found evidence in the form of charcoal from hearth fires that humans had lived here about 48,000 years ago.

While scholars in the United States generally viewed Dr. Guidon’s work with skepticism, she pressed on, obtaining the permission of Brazilian authorities to preserve the archaeological sites near the town of São Raimundo Nonato in a national park that now gets thousands of visitors a year despite its remote location in Piauí, one of Brazil’s poorest states.

Dr. Guidon remains defiant about her findings. At her home on the grounds of a museum she founded to focus on the discoveries in Serra da Capivara, she said she believed that humans had reached these plateaus even earlier, around 100,000 years ago, and might have come not overland from Asia but by boat from Africa.

Professor Boëda, who succeeded Dr. Guidon in leading the excavations, said that such early dates may have been possible but that more research was needed. His team is using thermoluminescence, a technique that measures the exposure of sediments to sunlight, to determine their age.

At the same time, discoveries elsewhere in Brazil are adding to the mystery of how the Americas were settled.

In what may be another blow to the Clovis model of humans’ coming from northeast Asia, molecular geneticists showed last year that the Botocudo indigenous people living in southeastern Brazil in the late 1800s shared gene sequencescommonly found among Pacific Islanders from Polynesia.

How could Polynesians have made it to Brazil? Or aboriginal Australians? Or, if the archaeologists here are correct, how could a population arrive in this hinterland long before Clovis hunters began appearing in the Americas? The array of new discoveries has scholars on a quest for answers.

Reflecting how researchers are increasingly accepting older dates of human migration to the Americas, Michael R. Waters, a geoarchaeologist at Texas A&M University’s Center for the Study of the First Americans, said that a “single migration” into the Americas about 15,000 years ago may have given rise to the Clovis people. But he added that if the results obtained here in Serra da Capivara are accurate, they will raise even more questions about how the Americas were settled.

“If so, then whoever lived there never passed on their genetic material to living populations,” said Dr. Waters, explaining how the genetic history of indigenous peoples links them to the Clovis child found in Montana. “We must think long and hard about these early sites and how they fit into the picture of the peopling of the Americas.”

Advertisements

10 Ataques Con Armas Químicas Que Washington No Le Gustar Hablar

 

we the people

1 . El Ejército de los EE.UU. objeto de dumping 20 millones de galones de productos químicos en Vietnam desde 1962 hasta 1971

Durante la guerra de Vietnam, los militares de EE.UU. roció 20 millones de galones de productos químicos , incluido el agente naranja muy tóxico , en los bosques y tierras de cultivo de Vietnam y los países vecinos , destruyendo deliberadamente los suministros de alimentos , destruyendo la ecología de la selva , y devastando las vidas de cientos de miles de personas inocentes . Vietnam estima que, como resultado del ataque químico década , 400.000 personas fueron asesinadas o mutiladas , 500.000 niños han nacido con defectos de nacimiento , y 2 millones han sufrido de cáncer u otras enfermedades . En 2012 , la Cruz Roja estimó que un millón de personas en Vietnam tienen discapacidades o problemas de salud relacionados con el Agente Naranja .

agent orange

 

2 . Israel atacaron a civiles palestinos con fósforo blanco en 2008 – 2009

El fósforo blanco es un arma química incendiaria horrible que se derrite la carne humana hasta el hueso.

En 2009 , varios grupos de derechos humanos , entre ellas Human Rights Watch, Amnistía Internacional y la Cruz Roja Internacional informó que el gobierno de Israel estaba atacando a los civiles en su propio país con armas químicas. Un equipo de Amnistía Internacional afirmó encontrar ” pruebas irrefutables del uso generalizado de fósforo blanco ” como arma en zonas civiles densamente pobladas. El Ejército israelí negó las acusaciones en un primer momento , pero finalmente admitió que eran ciertas .

Después de la serie de acusaciones por parte de estas organizaciones no gubernamentales , el ejército israelí incluso llegó a la sede de las Naciones Unidas (! ) En Gaza con un ataque químico. ¿Cómo cree que todas estas pruebas se compara con el caso en contra de Siria ? ¿Por qué Obama no tratar de bombardear Israel?

israel

3 . Washington atacaron a civiles iraquíes con fósforo blanco en 2004

En 2004 , los periodistas integrados con los militares de EE.UU. en Irak comenzaron a reportar el uso de fósforo blanco en Faluya contra los insurgentes iraquíes. En primer lugar los militares mintió y dijo que sólo estaba utilizando fósforo blanco para crear cortinas de humo o para iluminar objetivos. Luego admitió haber usado el producto químico volátil como arma incendiaria . En ese momento, la televisión italiana RAI emitió un documental titulado , ” Faluya , la matanza tapada “, incluyendo imágenes sombrías de vídeo y fotografías , así como entrevistas presenciales con los residentes de Faluya y los soldados estadounidenses que revelan cómo el gobierno de EE.UU. indiscriminadamente llovió fuego químico blanco abajo en la ciudad iraquí y las mujeres y los niños a la muerte fundidos.

fosforo

4 . La CIA ayudó a Saddam Hussein Masacre de los iraníes y los kurdos con armas químicas en 1988

CIA registra ahora prueban que Washington sabía que Saddam Hussein estaba utilizando armas químicas (incluidos el gas sarín , gas nervioso y gas mostaza ) en la guerra entre Irán e Irak , pero continuó para derramar la inteligencia en manos de los militares iraquíes , Hussein informar de los movimientos de tropas iraníes a sabiendas de que iba a utilizar la información para lanzar ataques químicos. En un momento a principios de 1988 , Washington advirtió a Hussein de un movimiento de tropas iraníes que habría puesto fin a la guerra en una derrota decisiva para el gobierno iraquí . En marzo, un envalentonado Hussein con nuevos amigos en Washington golpeó un pueblo kurdo ocupado por las tropas iraníes con múltiples agentes químicos , matando a unas 5.000 personas e hiriendo a tantos como 10.000 más , la mayoría de ellos civiles . Miles más murieron en los años siguientes por complicaciones , enfermedades y defectos de nacimiento.

saddam

5 . El Ejército Probado Químicos de los residentes de pobres, negros St. Louis Barrios en 1950

A principios de la década de 1950 , el Ejército estableció sopladores motorizados en la parte superior de los rascacielos residenciales de bajos ingresos , en su mayoría negros barrios de San Luis , incluyendo las zonas donde hasta el 70 % de los residentes eran niños menores de 12 años . El gobierno dijo a los residentes que estaba experimentando con una cortina de humo para proteger la ciudad de ataques rusos , pero en realidad estaba bombeando el aire lleno de cientos de libras de polvo fino de zinc sulfuro de cadmio. El gobierno admite que hubo un segundo ingrediente en el polvo químico , pero si ese ingrediente era radiactivo permanece clasificado. Por supuesto que sí . Dado que las pruebas , un alarmante número de residentes de la zona han desarrollado cáncer. En 1955 , Spates Doris nació en uno de los edificios del Ejército utiliza para llenar el aire con productos químicos 1.953-1.954 . Su padre murió inexplicablemente ese mismo año , que ha visto cuatro hermanos mueren de cáncer , y Doris ella es una sobreviviente de cáncer de cuello uterino

negrito

6 . La policía lanzó gases lacrimógenos contra manifestantes Occupy en 2011

El salvaje violencia de la policía contra los manifestantes Occupy en 2011 fue bien documentado , andincluded el uso de gases lacrimógenos y otros químicos irritantes . Está prohibido gas lacrimógeno para usar contra los soldados enemigos en la batalla por la Convención sobre Armas Químicas . No se puede dar a la policía los manifestantes civiles en Oakland, California, la misma cortesía y la protección que el derecho internacional exige a los soldados enemigos en el campo de batalla ?

occupied

7 . El FBI atacado Hombres , Mujeres y Niños con gases lacrimógenos en Waco en 1993

En el infame asedio de Waco una comunidad pacífica de los Adventistas del Séptimo Día , el FBI bombea gas lacrimógeno contra edificios sabiendo que las mujeres , los niños y los bebés estaban en el interior . El gas lacrimógeno es altamente inflamable y se enciende , que envuelve los edificios en llamas y matando a 49 hombres y mujeres, y 27 niños , incluyendo bebés y niños pequeños . Recuerde , atacando a un soldado enemigo armado en un campo de batalla con gas lacrimógeno es un crimen de guerra . ¿Qué tipo de delincuencia está atacando a un bebé con gases lacrimógenos ?

waco

8 . El Ejército de los EE.UU. plagada Irak con Uranio Empobrecido Tóxico en 2003

En Irak, los militares de EE.UU. se llena el ambiente con miles de toneladas de municiones a base de uranio empobrecido , un producto de desecho nuclear tóxico y radiactivo. Como resultado , más de la mitad de los bebés nacidos en Fallujah from 2007 – 2010 nacieron con defectos de nacimiento . Algunos de estos defectos no se han visto antes fuera de los libros de texto con fotografías de los bebés que nacen cerca de pruebas nucleares en el Pacífico. El cáncer y la mortalidad infantil también han visto un aumento dramático en Irak. Según Christopher Busby , secretario científico del Comité Europeo sobre Riesgos de Radiación , “Estas son las armas que han destruido totalmente la integridad genética de la población de Irak. ” Después de autoría de dos de los cuatro informes publicados en 2012 sobre la crisis de salud en Irak , Faluya Busby descrito como teniendo ” el mayor índice de daño genético en una población cada vez estudiado. ”

uranium

9 . El Ejército de los EE.UU. mató a cientos de miles de civiles japoneses con Napalm from 1944 – 1945

El napalm es un gel pegajoso y muy inflamable que se ha utilizado como arma de terror de los militares de EE.UU. . En 1980 , las Naciones Unidas declararon el uso de napalm en franjas de la población civil de un crimen de guerra . Eso es exactamente lo que los militares de EE.UU. lo hizo en la Segunda Guerra Mundial , dejando suficiente napalm en un bombardeo de Tokio para quemar 100.000 personas a la muerte, dañar a un millón más , y dejar a un millón sin hogar en el single más mortífero ataque aéreo de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.

napan

10 . El Gobierno de EE.UU. lanzó bombas nucleares sobre dos ciudades japonesas en 1945

A pesar de las bombas nucleares no pueden considerarse armas químicas , creo que podemos estar de acuerdo que pertenecen a la misma categoría . Ciertamente se dispersan una gran cantidad de productos químicos radiactivos mortales . Ellos son tan horribles como las armas químicas, si no más, y por su propia naturaleza , adecuado para un solo propósito : aniquilar a toda una ciudad llena de civiles. Parece extraño que el único régimen que ha usado una de estas armas de terror en otros seres humanos ha ocupado a la humanidad en sí , con el pretexto de mantener el mundo a salvo de armas peligrosas en manos de los gobiernos peligrosas.

boom

10 Chemical Weapons Attacks Washington Doesn’t Want You to Talk About

 

 

we the people

  1. The U.S. Military Dumped 20 Million Gallons of Chemicals on Vietnam from 1962 – 1971

During the Vietnam War, the U.S. military sprayed 20 million gallons of chemicals, including the very toxic Agent Orange, on the forests and farmlands of Vietnam and neighboring countries, deliberately destroying food supplies, shattering the jungle ecology, and ravaging the lives of hundreds of thousands of innocent people. Vietnam estimates that as a result of the decade-long chemical attack, 400,000 people were killed or maimed, 500,000 babies have been born with birth defects, and 2 million have suffered from cancer or other illnesses. In 2012, the Red Cross estimated that one million people in Vietnam have disabilities or health problems related to Agent Orange.

agent orange

 

  1. Israel Attacked Palestinian Civilians with White Phosphorus in 2008 – 2009

White phosphorus is a horrific incendiary chemical weapon that melts human flesh right down to the bone.

In 2009, multiple human rights groups, including Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and International Red Cross reported that the Israeli government was attacking civilians in their own country with chemical weapons. An Amnesty International team claimed to find “indisputable evidence of the widespread use of white phosphorus” as a weapon in densely-populated civilian areas. The Israeli military denied the allegations at first, but eventually admitted they were true.

After the string of allegations by these NGOs, the Israeli military even hit a UN headquarters(!) in Gaza with a chemical attack. How do you think all this evidence compares to the case against Syria? Why didn’t Obama try to bomb Israel?

israel

  1. Washington Attacked Iraqi Civilians with White Phosphorus in 2004

In 2004, journalists embedded with the U.S. military in Iraq began reporting the use of white phosphorus in Fallujah against Iraqi insurgents. First the military lied and said that it was only using white phosphorus to create smokescreens or illuminate targets. Then it admitted to using the volatile chemical as an incendiary weapon. At the time, Italian television broadcaster RAI aired a documentary entitled, “Fallujah, The Hidden Massacre,” including grim video footage and photographs, as well as eyewitness interviews with Fallujah residents and U.S. soldiers revealing how the U.S. government indiscriminately rained white chemical fire down on the Iraqi city and melted women and children to death.

fosforo

 

 

  1. The CIA Helped Saddam Hussein Massacre Iranians and Kurds with Chemical Weapons in 1988

CIA records now prove that Washington knew Saddam Hussein was using chemical weapons (including sarin, nerve gas, and mustard gas) in the Iran-Iraq War, yet continued to pour intelligence into the hands of the Iraqi military, informing Hussein of Iranian troop movements while knowing that he would be using the information to launch chemical attacks. At one point in early 1988, Washington warned Hussein of an Iranian troop movement that would have ended the war in a decisive defeat for the Iraqi government. By March an emboldened Hussein with new friends in Washington struck a Kurdish village occupied by Iranian troops with multiple chemical agents, killing as many as 5,000 people and injuring as many as 10,000 more, most of them civilians. Thousands more died in the following years from complications, diseases, and birth defects.

saddam

 

  1. The Army Tested Chemicals on Residents of Poor, Black St. Louis Neighborhoods in The 1950s

In the early 1950 s, the Army set up motorized blowers on top of residential high-rises in low-income, mostly black St. Louis neighborhoods, including areas where as much as 70% of the residents were children under 12. The government told residents that it was experimenting with a smokescreen to protect the city from Russian attacks, but it was actually pumping the air full of hundreds of pounds of finely powdered zinc cadmium sulfide. The government admits that there was a second ingredient in the chemical powder, but whether or not that ingredient was radioactive remains classified. Of course it does. Since the tests, an alarming number of the area’s residents have developed cancer. In 1955, Doris Spates was born in one of the buildings the Army used to fill the air with chemicals from 1953 – 1954. Her father died inexplicably that same year, she has seen four siblings die from cancer, and Doris herself is a survivor of cervical cancer

negrito

  1. Police Fired Tear Gas at Occupy Protesters in 2011

The savage violence of the police against Occupy protesters in 2011 was well documented, and included the use of tear gas and other chemical irritants. Tear gas is prohibited for use against enemy soldiers in battle by the Chemical Weapons Convention. Can’t police give civilian protesters in Oakland, California the same courtesy and protection that international law requires for enemy soldiers on a battlefield?

occupied

  1. The FBI Attacked Men, Women, and Children With Tear Gas in Waco in 1993

At the infamous Waco siege of a peaceful community of Seventh Day Adventists, the FBI pumped tear gas into buildings knowing that women, children, and babies were inside. The tear gas was highly flammable and ignited, engulfing the buildings in flames and killing 49 men and women, and 27 children, including babies and toddlers. Remember, attacking an armed enemy soldier on a battlefield with tear gas is a war crime. What kind of crime is attacking a baby with tear gas?

waco

  1. The U.S. Military Littered Iraq with Toxic Depleted Uranium in 2003

In Iraq, the U.S. military has littered the environment with thousands of tons of munitions made from depleted uranium, a toxic and radioactive nuclear waste product. As a result, more than half of babies born in Fallujah from 2007 – 2010 were born with birth defects. Some of these defects have never been seen before outside of textbooks with photos of babies born near nuclear tests in the Pacific. Cancer and infant mortality have also seen a dramatic rise in Iraq. According to Christopher Busby, the Scientific Secretary of the European Committee on Radiation Risk, “These are weapons which have absolutely destroyed the genetic integrity of the population of Iraq.” After authoring two of four reports published in 2012 on the health crisis in Iraq, Busby described Fallujah as having, “the highest rate of genetic damage in any population ever studied.”

uranium

  1. The U.S. Military Killed Hundreds of Thousands of Japanese Civilians with Napalm from 1944 – 1945

Napalm is a sticky and highly flammable gel which has been used as a weapon of terror by the U.S. military. In 1980, the UN declared the use of napalm on swaths of civilian population a war crime. That’s exactly what the U.S. military did in World War II, dropping enough napalm in one bombing raid on Tokyo to burn 100,000 people to death, injure a million more, and leave a million without homes in the single deadliest air raid of World War II.

napan

10. The U.S. Government Dropped Nuclear Bombs on Two Japanese Cities in 1945

Although nuclear bombs may not be considered chemical weapons, I believe we can agree they belong to the same category. They certainly disperse an awful lot of deadly radioactive chemicals. They are every bit as horrifying as chemical weapons if not more, and by their very nature, suitable for only one purpose: wiping out an entire city full of civilians. It seems odd that the only regime to ever use one of these weapons of terror on other human beings has busied itself with the pretense of keeping the world safe from dangerous weapons in the hands of dangerous governments.

 

boom

 

LA CONTROVERSIA DE LA GRAN ESFINGE

picture of the great sphinx seen on diagonal

por

Dr. Robert M. Schoch

La Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto, durante mucho tiempo ha  pensado que tallado  por el faraón Kefrén IV dinastía ( Kefrén ) alrededor de 2500 AC ,Recientemente he determinado que , de hecho, la Gran Esfinge fue construida en etapas y he estimado que las primeras partes de la estatua ( el cuerpo central de la Esfinge ) se remontan al período de 7000 a 5000 antes de Cristo. Esta edad de la Esfinge está ahora bien – establecido. La evidencia de una esfinge anterior ha sido debidamente publicado en revistas pertinentes  , se refirió a las principales reuniones científicas sin ser falsificado  ] y hasta el momento la hipótesis de una esfinge más no ha sido convincentemente refutada.  Mi trabajo en la Gran Esfinge también ha recibido bastante atención en la prensa popular.  En este caso no es mi propósito reiterar la evidencia científica para una Esfinge de más edad ( el lector interesado se refirió a los artículos ya citados en las notas al pie , o pueden escribir a mí directamente en la Universidad de Boston) , sino más bien , en esta nota lo haré describir brevemente algunas de las tácticas interesantes utilizadas por algunos de mis críticos en el intento de desacreditar  mi trabajo en la Esfinge.

Para empezar, uno debe darse cuenta ( como no lo hice al principio) que la datación de la Gran Esfinge parece ser un tema muy delicado para la mayoría de los egiptólogos modernos. A pesar de que algunos de los primeros fundadores de la egiptología moderna (como Sir Flinders Petrie , Sir EA Wallis Budge, y Sir GC Maspero ) estaban abiertos a la idea de que la Esfinge puede ser anterior a la Dinastía IV pirámides que parece custodiar y antiguos de nuevos egipcios Unido a Romanos ( circa 1400 aC a 400 dC) en general pensaban que la Esfinge era más viejo que las pirámides , los egiptólogos modernos han galvanizado alrededor del dogma de que la Gran Esfinge fue construida por Kefrén , alrededor del año 2500 aC La base de esta atribución es puramente circunstancial , la pieza más fuerte de evidencia es la similitud de renombre entre la cara de la Esfinge y el rostro de Kefrén como se ve en otras estatuas . Sin embargo, experto forense Frank Domingo del Departamento de Policía de Nueva York ha demostrado definitivamente que el rostro de la Esfinge y la cara se ve en las estatuas de Kefrén firmados no son de la misma persona ( 4 ) y, de hecho , el rostro de la Esfinge , aparentemente no corresponde a la misma raza que la cara se ve en las estatuas de Kefrén ( la Esfinge tiene un ” africano” distintivo ” Nubian ” o ” aspecto negroide ” que no existe en la faz de Kefrén ) .

apocalypse-armageddon-storm-2517-1024x576

Aún así, la mayoría de los egiptólogos que viven sostienen que la Esfinge fue construida por , o al menos en la época de , Kefrén . El cuestionamiento de la edad de la Esfinge parece sacudir los cimientos de la egiptología convencional. Una esfinge mucho mayor pone en cuestión el sentido común relativo a cuándo y cómo se desarrolló la civilización en el valle del Nilo . Tal vez la corriente principal Egiptología se verá obligado a repensar su historia tradicional en cuanto a exactamente que los egipcios dinásticos eran y de dónde venían ( tanto geográfica como culturalmente ) . En general, los egiptólogos insistir en que los pueblos de Egipto no tenían la tecnología o la organización social para cortar el cuerpo de la base de la Esfinge en tiempos predinásticos . Una Esfinge mayor implica que existía una cultura altamente sofisticada a lo largo de las orillas del Nilo, en una época anterior que hasta ahora imaginado. Tal vez la noción de progreso cultural tendrá que ser reconsiderada.

Cuando se le dijo de mi trabajo en volver a salir con la Esfinge , egiptólogo Carol Redmount de la Universidad de California, Berkeley , fue citado y parafraseado diciendo (Los Angeles Times , 23 de octubre de 1991, p A18. ) : ” ‘ Simplemente no hay manera de que podría ser verdad [ que la parte más antigua de la Esfinge se remonta a 5000 aC o anterior ] . ‘ Los habitantes de esa región no habrían tenido la tecnología, las instituciones de gobierno o incluso la voluntad de construir una estructura de este tipo de miles de años antes del reinado de Kefrén , dijo ella ” . Y Redmount continuó , afirmando que ” esta conclusión [ de que la Esfinge es mucho más antigua que Kefrén ] va en contra de” todo lo que sabemos sobre el antiguo Egipto . ‘ ” Del mismo modo, Peter Lacovara , curador asistente del departamento egipcio del Museo de Bellas Artes de Boston , intentó despedir a mi trabajo diciendo (citado en The Boston Globe , 23 de octubre de 1991, p 8 . ) : ” Eso es ridículo … Miles de investigadores que trabajan desde hace cientos de años ” [ un poco exagerado en cuanto a cuántas personas han estudiado seriamente la Esfinge ] han estudiado este tema. . . ” la cronología está muy bien trabajado . No hay grandes sorpresas en el almacén para nosotros. ”

La comunidad Egyptological hizo poco para hacer frente a mis argumentos y datos . Una de las declaraciones más contundentes en su contra mis datos fue el Dr. K. Lal Gauri de : ” . Ni la evidencia del subsuelo ni la evidencia de la erosión indica nada en lo que se refiere a la edad Es que no es relevante” (SCIENCE , 14 de febrero de 1992, vol . 255 , p . 793 ) . Pero , por supuesto, tal afirmación carece de toda base objetiva . La razón de esta evidencia “no es relevante” a mis críticos es que no pueden aceptar las implicaciones de la evidencia. Ellos “saben” cuando la Esfinge fue construida , y no hay pruebas pueden derrocar a sus antiguas creencias . Ya que no pueden refutar las pruebas , se desestimó porque no eran pertinentes .

La táctica principal que se utiliza para contrarrestar mi herejía era tratar de despedirme como un charlatán y no-persona . Dr. Kathryn Bard ( Departamento de Arqueología de la Universidad de Boston ) implica fuertemente ( en BOSTON UNIVERSITY HOY , 11-17 noviembre de 1991, p. 6 ) , por asociación, que mi trabajo en la Esfinge no cae en la misma categoría que la de los ” charlatanes y buscadores de sensaciones “. ( como nota al margen , hasta el momento el Dr. Bard ha negado a debatir en persona sobre el tema a pesar de la invitación de una rama neutra de la Universidad de Boston para organizar dicha reunión ) Dr. Mark Lehner , de la Universidad de Chicago me acusó de practicar ” pseudociencia ” (New York Times , 9 de febrero de 1992, p. 16 ) . El Dr. Zahi Hawass, entonces Director de Antigüedades de la meseta de Giza y Sakkara , se refirió a la investigación como “alucinaciones americanos” (véase JA West , 1993 , serpiente ( edición revisada ), p. 229 ) . Para colmo de males , se publicó un artículo en el diario árabe “Al- Ahram ” (El Cairo , 24 de noviembre de 1991) en la que se habría declarado [ No leo árabe, así que sólo he leído una traducción del artículo; véase también PW Roberts, 1993 , Río en el desierto , p . 129 ] que el Dr. James Wiseman (Presidente del Departamento de Arqueología de la Universidad de Boston ) afirmó que no soy un miembro de la comunidad de la Universidad de Boston . Por supuesto , esto es un error – Estoy a tiempo completo , permanente ( permanente), miembro de la facultad en la Universidad de Boston. No soy , sin embargo, un miembro del Departamento de Arqueología de la Facultad de Artes Liberales de la Universidad de Boston, sino más bien un miembro de la División de Ciencias y Matemáticas en la Facultad de Estudios Generales (anteriormente el Colegio de Estudios Básicos ) Universidad de Boston. La Universidad de Boston se compone de unas quince escuelas y colegios , y más de 2.400 miembros de la facultad , tal vez la confusión con respecto a mi afiliación con la Universidad de Boston se debe al tamaño de la universidad y el número de diferentes unidades académicas que contiene.

Es evidente que la comunidad Egyptological estaba en pie de guerra , y la forma más fácil para deshacerse de mí ( o eso creían ) estaba con ataques ad hominem sobre mi persona . Una gran parte del problema parecía ser que yo era un “outsider ” ( mi doctorado en geología y geofísica de la Universidad de Yale ) , y extraoficialmente que incluso fue contada por un egiptólogo que había un montón de rocas para mí para estudiar distintos de los de la meseta de Giza , donde se encuentra la Esfinge .

sphinx

Fue la gran esfinge rodeado por un foso ?

Según Robert Temple, una teoría foso explica la erosión del agua de la Esfinge sin la hipótesis de que su origen se remonta a un período anterior de más precipitaciones que el presente. No voy a dirigirme a sus otras hipótesis, que no encuentro convincente , que la Esfinge fue el [ perro salvaje ] chacal Anubis y la cara que se vio en la Esfinge es la del Reino Medio faraón Amenemhat II , aunque tenga en cuenta la Esfinge original tiene ha vuelto a trabajar y re- talló la cabeza.

Mientras que en Egipto recientemente ( marzo de 2009) Miré a la Gran Esfinge con nuevos ojos . Resumiré media docena de puntos.

1 ) El Templo de la Esfinge (construido con bloques removidos de la Esfinge del recinto cuando el cuerpo de la Esfinge fue tallada inicialmente) y el Templo del Valle  al sur pesada erosión inducida por precipitación en sus bloques fundamentales. Estos templos de piedra caliza fueron posteriormente reformadas con los revestimientos de granito de Aswan durante el Imperio Antiguo . La teoría foso no puede explicar la naturaleza de la erosión muy antigua visto bajo el barniz de granito Imperio Antiguo.

2 ) Mucho más pesado erosión de la superficie se produce en el extremo occidental de la Esfinge del recinto , disminuyendo drásticamente hacia el extremo oriental . Esto se debe a las lluvias antiguas y la Paleohidrología de la zona. Esta erosión no es compatible con el agua acumulada en el recinto .

3 ) Los niveles más altos de los estratos miembro medio , se ve en la Esfinge del recinto en el extremo occidental , están más gravemente erosionadas , como se espera de la lluvia . Si la teoría foso fuera cierto, entonces los estratos más bajos en el extremo oriental de la Esfinge del recinto sería más fuertemente erosionado (causada por el agua que trajo a través de los canales del Nilo) , sino todo lo contrario se ve.

4 ) Los datos sísmicos que demuestran la profundidad de la erosión por debajo del piso de la Esfinge Enclosure, basado en mis análisis ( calibrado muy conservadora ) , da una edad mínima de por lo menos hace 7.000 años para que el cuerpo central de la Esfinge. El agua estancada en el recinto de la esfinge no aceleraría la profundidad de la erosión por debajo del piso de la caja.

5 ) Las fisuras verticales observados en las paredes de la Esfinge recinto muestran signos diagnósticos de haber sido formada por la precipitación y el escurrimiento del agua. Ellos no muestran características que son de diagnóstico o incluso sugerente de haber sido formado por el dragado artificial de la esfinge del recinto , como Robert Temple sugiere .

6 ) Suponiendo que el argumento de que la Esfinge se sentó en una piscina, o bien el nivel del agua alrededor de la Esfinge fue el mismo que el de la tabla de agua circundante, o las paredes y el suelo de la piscina estaban selladas y estancas ( y las paredes artificiales , como por ejemplo en el extremo oriental , eran lo suficientemente fuertes como para soportar la presión del agua ) . ( Tenga en cuenta que el extremo occidental actual de la Esfinge del recinto está en una elevación mucho más alta que el extremo oriental [ véase la figura en la página 534 de El misterio de la esfinge por Robert Temple con Olivia Temple, Inner Traditions , 2009 ] , pero clara erosión del agua es se muestra en las elevaciones más altas en el extremo occidental . Dado que el agua busca su propio nivel , si el agua en una supuesta fosa llegó a la altura del extremo occidental de la Esfinge Enclosure, a continuación, el extremo oriental , así como las paredes a lo largo del norte y lados sur deben haber sido construido a una altura comparable como el extremo occidental . Esto es independiente de si la pared oriental del recinto [= muro occidental del Templo de la Esfinge ] tiene una base de roca natural o fue enteramente compuesto de corte y se coloca la piedra. ) Sabemos que el nivel freático antiguo era muy por debajo del nivel del suelo de la esfinge del recinto (o de lo contrario el Templo de la Esfinge se hubiera ahogado) . La Esfinge Enclosure, si simplemente talladas en la roca de fondo ( como todo indica ) no se habría celebrado una piscina profunda de agua estancada . El lecho de roca en el recinto es muy criticado, y se caracteriza por una morfología cárstica que gotear como un colador . Necesitaría el recinto para ser totalmente sellado ( con mortero o cemento , tal vez) , y no hay evidencia de tal sellado . Si el recinto había sido sellado de tal manera , esto no sería compatible con la teoría de dragado para las fisuras verticales . Además, cámaras y túneles bajo la Esfinge se habrían inundado desde arriba si la Esfinge había estado sentado en un charco de agua, a menos que la Esfinge recinto había sido estanco .

En pocas palabras , la teoría de la fosa no se sostiene .

an artist's rendering of water running down the walls of the sphinx enclosurean artist's rendering of water versus wind erosion

representación de un artista del agua corriendo por las paredes de la representación de la esfinge enclosurean del artista de agua contra la erosión eólica

Es cierto que algunos de mis primeros problemas con la comunidad Egyptological parecen tener su origen en el hecho de que me presentaron , a través de un colega (Dr. Robert Eddy, a la vez que un miembro de la facultad en mi compañero de la universidad ) , al problema de la Esfinge por el notorio John Anthony West . West tiene una reputación como un egiptólogo heterodoxo y autodidacta que tiene poco respeto por la creación Egyptological y, de hecho , sostiene que gran parte de la interpretación estándar de la civilización egipcia es fundamentalmente errónea . West también es visto por algunas personas como una ” Nueva Era “, [5] y , me atrevería a decir , un chiflado general y charlatán (he llegado a conocer a Occidente bien desde que lo conocí en 1989 , y él no es ni ) . Desafortunadamente Occidente ha utilizado el término ” Atlantis” un poco demasiado a menudo al proponer algunas de sus ideas y, en mi opinión, él tiene sobre- estima la edad de la Gran Esfinge ( que ha sugerido que puede regresar a diez o quince mil años antes de Cristo ) . No tuve más remedio involucré en toda la controversia como un favor a un par de miembros de la facultad compañeros . Oí West , pero no pensé que había muchas posibilidades que él estaba en lo cierto al sugerir que la Esfinge era mayor que su atribución estándar – hasta que llegué a Egipto. Entonces , para mi sorpresa , descubrí que West podría ser en realidad a algo, incluso si él consiguió algunos detalles mal (pero West no tiene entrenamiento formal como geólogo ) .

¿Y qué si West es autor de un libro sobre astrología [ 6] y propugna otras opiniones poco ortodoxas ? Esto no tiene más que ver con los datos concretos relacionados con la edad de la Gran Esfinge que lo hace el color de mis ojos , o la política del Islam – o lo hace ? En el mundo apretado, virtualmente cerrado de la egiptología pronto aprendí lo contrario. Parecía que todo estaba cargada política y psicológicamente . Egiptólogos me parecen demasiado sensibles acerca de la Nueva Era , los psíquicos , los fanáticos religiosos, creyentes en “pirámide del poder “, y así sucesivamente , tal vez con razón, cuando se tiene todo tipo de reclamaciones ” extrañas ” en cuanto al significado y el propósito de las pirámides , etc [ 7 ], incluida la afirmación de que los dos grandes pirámides de Giza estaban aterrizando balizas para un puerto espacial que fue construido en la península de Sinaí en ca. 10.500 aC [ 8], y que la Esfinge tiene alguna relación especial con la ” cara de Marte ” reputado [ 9 ] .

De hecho, incluso algunos eruditos bien atrincheradas dentro del establecimiento Egyptological tienen conexiones de la Nueva Era. Es de conocimiento común [ 10 ] que el interés del Dr. Mark Lehner en el antiguo Egipto y la Esfinge se originó debido a su conexión con la Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación (ARE , la Fundación Edgar Cayce ) . Al parecer parte de la educación universitaria de Lehner fue subvencionado por la ARE y A.R.E. miembros ; Lehner iba a ser de la ARE ” hombre de El Cairo. ” Lehner escribió un libro [ 11 ] , hace muchos años , titulado The Heritage egipcia en la que ] se analizan las lecturas psíquicas de Edgar Cayce que describen una sociedad muy antigua que existía en Egipto, que consta de los sobrevivientes de la civilización perdida de la Atlántida. Me han dicho que el libro de Lehner es un “clásico” en su campo entre los devotos . Según Edgar Cayce, tal como fue revisado por Lehner, la Esfinge y las pirámides fueron construidas ca. 10.500 aC y debajo o cerca de la Esfinge fue sepultado un Salón de los Registros que contiene los registros de la Atlántida. Curiosamente , no sólo Lehner tiene ex A.R.E. conexiones . El Dr. Zahi Hawass también fue apoyado en parte y frecuentado por miembros de la ARE Yo personalmente no me pongo cualquier acción en las lecturas psíquicas , las historias de la Atlántida , o similares , pero de Lehner (y de Hawass , para el caso) las asociaciones anteriores con la ARE No siempre me molesta cuando no incidan desfavorablemente en su ( su ) estudios actuales . De hecho , la A.R.E. fondos y publica mucha investigación sólida sobre el antiguo Egipto [ 12 ] , a pesar de que gran parte de la investigación que financian o publicar contradice las lecturas de Cayce .

Dada Lehner y de A.R.E. de Hawass / Conexiones “Nueva Era” , en particular , me parece irónico que ellos y otros egiptólogos me han acusado de ser un pseudocientífico que sea cómplice supone New Age grazna como West , ( El Misterio de la Esfinge. ) Tal vez es debido a su antiguas conexiones que son tan sensibles a estas cuestiones. Yo , por otro lado, ya que nunca había tenido este tipo de conexiones , en primer lugar , preocupa poco acerca de dónde la inspiración para las hipótesis científicas y análisis venido. En el caso de la edad de la Esfinge , sólo porque Occidente podría contener algunos puntos de vista no convencionales , eso no quiere decir que su propuesta (basada en la obra de Schwaller de Lubicz [ 13 ] ) – que la Esfinge es más antigua que su atribución tradicional – cannot ser utilizado heurísticamente [ 14 ] . Análisis preliminar de Occidente en la edad de la Esfinge me inició en una investigación científica muy seria, sin tonterías .

Aquí yo tengo también en cuenta que la ideología , la teología , y el nacionalismo a menudo influir en la manera en que los datos arqueológicos se interpreta [ 15 ] . tener en cuenta la posibilidad de que mi Redating de la Esfinge puede ser repugnante para algunas personas , principalmente sobre la base de la ideología política y el dogma religioso. Modernos árabes musulmanes a veces puede ser abiertamente hostil hacia la antigua cultura egipcia – especialmente si se considera como relativamente temprano y sofisticado. Cuando me interesé por primera vez en la datación de la esfinge de un amigo que había vivido en Egipto durante varios años me advirtió que podría encontrarse con tal hostilidad si me atreviera a sugerir que la Esfinge podría ser incluso más antigua que ya creían . Al principio no le creí , pero ahora me inclino a pensar que puede haber sido correcta. Muchos de los militantes islámicos y fundamentalistas que actualmente están tratando de tomar el gobierno de Egipto quieren destruir todas las estatuas y monumentos del antiguo Egipto. Islam Fundamental prohíbe el arte figurativo , y toda la civilización que es anterior al profeta Mahoma es considerada idólatra. Sugerir que las porciones de la Esfinge son incluso más antiguos que se pensaba tradicionalmente , lo que implica una sociedad sofisticada que existía incluso antes en el tiempo , sólo se frota sal en las llagas abiertas de fundamentalistas que deben hacer frente (al menos hasta que puedan destruirlos ) los magníficos restos de la cultura faraónica .

En general , he encontrado que la egiptología es una fascinante , pero emocionalmente cargada, disciplina. Mi formación como científico no me preparó completamente para las personalidades fuertes que iba a enfrentar en las filas de Egyptophiles . Desde que se convirtió involucrados en la investigación sobre la edad de la Esfinge he descubierto que no soy el único científico que ha tenido una menos que positiva experiencia inicial cuando se trata de los egiptólogos . Germer [ 16 ] ha señalado astutamente que ” En el pasado , la cooperación entre las ciencias naturales y de la egiptología necesariamente no ha tenido éxito en todos los casos El egiptólogo es inicialmente sospechoso ; . Él muchas veces rechaza los resultados de las manos, y no está dispuesto a trabajar con científicos . datos cree que puede hacerlo mejor con su propia metodología Sólo cuando se llega a los límites de su enfoque – . trabajar con textos antiguos o material arqueológico – y que le gustaría “probar” una teoría particular, citando “objetiva” científica datos que hace el turno egiptólogo a las ciencias naturales . Si hay diferentes resultados científicos obtenidos con el mismo material , el egiptólogo menudo no está en condiciones de determinar que es lo más probable. Muchas veces es una cuestión de elegir esos datos “científicos” que mejor se adapte a una teoría particular , sin realmente saber si son fiables o no. ”

Aquí no me refiero a postular una crítica generalizada contra todos los egiptólogos . Más bien, creo que es importante señalar que las metodologías tradicionales utilizadas por muchos egiptólogos a menudo difieren de manera fundamental de los enfoques y metodologías utilizadas por los profesionales en las ciencias naturales. En la Asociación Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia debate sobre la edad de la Esfinge , por ejemplo , me hice muy consciente de que mi adversario, Dr. Lehner, puede ser un egiptólogo muy brillante y competente, pero no lo hace ” pensar como un científico . ” En retrospectiva, me doy cuenta de que soy tal vez la culpa de la falta de comunicación entre Lehner y yo mismo en la reunión de la AAAS febrero 1992 para que yo le estaba dirigiendo incorrectamente como un colega científico , que no lo es. Lehner es un egiptólogo y se acerca a los problemas y los datos de ese sesgo. Tal vez es hora de inyectar un poco más de la ciencia en la egiptología y ver qué pasa . Podríamos presenciar algunas novedades interesantes .

NOTAS:

1 . RM Schoch , 1992 , ” Re-dating the Great Sphinx of Giza, ” KMT , un diario moderno del antiguo Egipto 03:02 (verano 1992 ) , 52-59 , 66-70 ( los comentarios editoriales y pies de figuras , que no se ve por Schoch antes de publicación, son por Dennis C. Forbes , Director Editorial, KMT – tenga en cuenta que en la página 54 en la parte trasera de la Esfinge está en el lado izquierdo de la fotografía , no en el lado derecho como erróneamente se indica en el título) ; TL Dobecki . y RM Schoch , 1992 , ” Investigaciones sísmicas en las inmediaciones de la Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto, ” Geoarqueología : un Journal7 Internacional : 6 ( diciembre de 1992) , 527-544 (por desgracia, un error involuntario se produce en la primera página de este artículo : mal se dice de pasada que Khufu ” reinó durante el final del vigésimo sexto milenio antes de Cristo “, cuando , por supuesto, que reinó durante el final del vigésimo sexto siglo , o milenio tercero medio, BC ) .

2 . RM Schoch y JA West , 1991 , Redating la Gran Esfinge de Giza , Egipto. Sociedad Geológica de América abstrae con los programas [ de la reunión anual , celebrada en San Diego , Octubre 1991 ] , v 23 , no. 5 , p . A253 ; RM Schoch , 1992 , ¿Qué edad es la Esfinge, resúmenes para la Reunión Anual 1992 de la Asociación Americana para el Avance de la Ciencia , Chicago [ febrero 1992 ] , p ? . 202 . Este último trabajo fue una contribución invitado a un simposio convocado especialmente por la AAAS para discutir mi Redating de la Gran Esfinge .

3 . Durante el debate de 1992 AAAS en la era de la Gran Esfinge de mis adversarios más acérrimos , los Dres . Marcos Lehner y K. Lal Gauri , no pudieron rebatir con éxito mi fecha más antigua para la Gran Esfinge . El debate AAAS Sphinx está bien descrito por Paul William Roberts en su libro río en el desierto : Viajes modernos en el Antiguo Egipto ( 1993 , Random House, Nueva York , pp 127-135 ), este debate también fue la base de un artículo por Paul William Roberts titulado ” enigma de la Esfinge “, que apareció en la edición de marzo 1993 de la revista canadiense SATURDAY NIGHT (pp. 22-24, 26 , 28 , 73) . Véase la discusión también relacionado de este tema en John Anthony West , 1993 , serpiente celeste : La Alta Sabiduría del Antiguo Egipto ( edición revisada ) , de Quest Books (The Theosophical Publishing House), Wheaton, IL , pp 225-232 . Escribí un artículo de divulgación para la revista OMNI en mi Redating de la Gran Esfinge ( RM Schoch , 1992 , ” A Riddle moderna de la Esfinge , ” OMNI 14:11 [ agosto 1992 ] , 46-48, 68-69 ) . Los editores de OMNI se dieron cuenta de lo controvertido que fue el tema , por lo que invitó a mis críticos , en forma de Lehner y Gauri , para escribir una refutación a mi trabajo. Al principio con entusiasmo aceptaron escribir una pieza , pero después de meses de retraso , se negaron. OMNI luego publicó un breve después de que yo había escrito reafirmando mi esquema Redating de la Gran Esfinge , y los editores OMNI comentó que Lehner y Gauri ” bajaron ” su invitación a comentar mi trabajo (véase RM Schoch , 1993 , Reconsiderando la Esfinge. OMNI , v 15, no. 6 [Abril de 1993] , p.31 ) . Aunque la mayoría de los egiptólogos han estado en desacuerdo con violencia , al menos inicialmente , con mis conclusiones respecto a la antigüedad de la Gran Esfinge , ha habido excepciones . Por ejemplo, un grupo de científicos de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio , utilizando diferentes criterios y con total independencia de nuestro trabajo , llegó a conclusiones similares en relación con la edad de la Gran Esfinge – a saber, que la Esfinge es anterior a la época de Kefrén ( ver Yoshimura , S. , T. Nakagawa, y S. Tonouchi , 1988 , no Destructivos Pirámide Investigaciones ( 2 ) , Estudios de Cultura egipcio N º 8 , de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio ; Yoshimura , S., S. Tonouchi y T. Nakagawa, 1987 , el primer Simposio Internacional sobre la Aplicación de la tecnología moderna para Exploraciones arqueológicas en la Necrópolis de Giza : la sustancia de la expresión, de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio ; Yoshimura , S., S. Tonouchi , T. Nakagawa, y K. Seki, 1987 , Investigación Pirámide no Destructivos ( 1 ) – Por Electromagnetic Wave Método , Estudios de Cultura egipcio N º 6 , de la Universidad de Waseda , Tokio) .

4 . Véase especialmente JA West , ” Civilización repensado , ” Cond Nast Traveler 28:2 ( febrero de 1993) , 100-105 , 168-171 , 175-177 . West es la primera persona que me metió en Redating la Gran Esfinge , en este artículo se sucinta cuenta la historia humana detrás de la investigación de la esfinge . Este artículo también incluye una barra lateral y dos fotografías que he contribuido (p. 103 ) , el análisis del experto forense Frank Domingo y la reconstrucción de la cara de la Esfinge ( p. 104 ), y varios comentarios hechos por los críticos de la hipótesis Redating Esfinge. Para una muestra de la publicidad en torno a mi investigación Esfinge, ver GSA Today ( vol. 2 , núm. 1 . , P . 1-2 , enero de 1992) y los artículos impresos en THE NEW YORK TIMES 24 de octubre 1991 , THE WASHINGTON POST 11 de noviembre 1991 , NEWSDAY [New York ] 25 de octubre de 1991 EL INDEPENDIENTE [London ] 14 de octubre de 1991 EE.UU. hoy el 10 de octubre de 1991, The Boston Globe 23 de octubre 1991 , el San Diego Union 23 de octubre 1991 , Los Angeles Times 23 de octubre 1991 , LA CRÓNICA EDUCACIÓN SUPERIOR 13 de noviembre 1991 , 11 de diciembre de 1991, y el 15 de enero de 1992, el egipcio GACETA 28 de octubre 1991 , VANCOUVER dom 28 octubre de 1991, el International Herald Tribune 12 de noviembre 1991 , y el Houston Chronicle 23 de octubre 1991 , The New York Times 09 de febrero 1992 , el Washington Post 17 ​​de febrero 1992 , el San Francisco Chronicle 08 de febrero 1992 , el Daily Telegraph ( Londres) 10 de febrero 1992 , Science 14 febrero de 1992, New Scientist 15 de febrero 1992 , el Houston Chronicle 12 de febrero 1992 , y el Chicago Tribune 24 febrero de 1992. Para los artículos relacionados, ver THE NEW YORK TIMES 27 de junio 1992 y el 18 de julio de 1992 LA APLICACIÓN DE LA LEY DE NOTICIAS 15 de junio 1992 , The Times ( Londres) 03 de julio 1992 , SKY Magazine ( Delta Airlines ) agosto de 1992, Fortean Times ( Número 64 ) Agosto / septiembre de 1992, INSIGHT en las noticias 10 de agosto 1992 , pp 15-16; un artículo en MUNDO 21 ( edición de septiembre de 1992, pp 130-137 ), y la sección Home Life of lA PROVIDENCE JOURNAL Domingo 28 de febrero 1993 . Esta es sólo una lista parcial ; supuestamente la historia fue cubierta o reproducirse en cientos de periódicos de todo el mundo, y también mencionó en una serie de programas de radio y televisión.

I y / o el Oeste fueron entrevistados para una serie de programas de radio y televisión . Me fue presentado en ” Informe sobre la Ciencia , una presentación de video : Los científicos Tackle Últimas Enigma de la Esfinge – ¿Cuántos años tiene ? ” producido por el Instituto Americano de Física , julio de 1992 (longitud aproximadamente 2 minutos , más 5 minutos de comentarios adicionales ) . Este video fue transmitido a través de varios canales de televisión en mayo y junio de 1992 . West y yo participamos en una entrevista de televisión en vivo, con Scott Simon , en relación con la edad de la Gran Esfinge el sábado de la NBC Today Show de difusión de la Ciudad de Nueva York, 22 de agosto de 1992. También estuve de acuerdo en ser entrevistado por la Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación / La Fundación Edgar Cayce sobre la edad de la Esfinge ; para la versión publicada de esta entrevista vea ” La Esfinge : Mayor de tiempo? ” , Venture Inward , enero / febrero 1992 , pp 14-17 , 48-49 .

representación de un artista de la esfinge como representación de un artista lionan masculina de la esfinge como un león macho con la lluvia que cae sobre él

an artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lionan artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lion with rain falling on him

5 . C. Hedges, “Egipto no mantiene Terror Para aquellos en el hechizo de la Esfinge, ” THE NEW YORK TIMES 13 de abril 1993 .

6 . J. A. West , 1991 , El Caso de la Astrología . Vikingo Arkana , Londres y Nueva York.

7 . P. Tompkins, 1978 , Secretos de la Gran Pirámide. Harper and Row, New York .

8 . Z. Sitchin , 1986 , ” falsificación ” en la Gran Pirámide . Venture Inward [la revista de la Asociación para la Investigación y la Ilustración y la Fundación Edgar Cayce ] , noviembre / diciembre 1986, pp 33-37 .

9 . RC Hoagland , 1992 Los monumentos de Marte : una ciudad al borde de la eternidad , North Atlantic Books , Berkeley .

10 . AR Smith, 1988 , Hugh Lynn Cayce : los negocios de mi Padre. La compañía que pone , Publishers, Norfolk / Virginia Beach.

11 . M. Lehner, 1974 [ 14a impresión, 1991 ] , La herencia egipcia , con base en las lecturas de Edgar Cayce . Asociación para la Investigación y la Iluminación Press, Virginia Beach, VA .

12 . EE Cayce , G. Cayce Schwartzer , y la DG Richards, 1988 , Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited . Harper and Row, San Francisco.

13 . RA Schwaller de Lubicz , 1982 [ traducido por A. y G. VANDENBROECK ] , Ciencia Sagrada : El rey de la teocracia faraónica . Inner Traditions International, de Nueva York.

14 . DG Richards, 1988 , anomalías arqueológicas en las Bahamas. J. Sci. . Exploración, 2:181 – 201; WD Gray, 1991 , Pensar críticamente acerca de las ideas de la Nueva Era . Wadsworth Publishing Company , Belmont , California.

15 . NA Silberman , 1989 , Entre el Pasado y Presente : Arqueología, ideología y nacionalismo en el Medio Oriente moderno . Henry Holt and Company, de Nueva York; C. Hedges, ” la ira de los musulmanes « Sin perdonó a las momias , “THE NEW YORK TIMES 23 de julio 1993 .

16 . R. Germer , 1986 , problemas de la ciencia en la egiptología , en la ciencia en Egiptología (RA David , ed. ), Manchester University Press , Manchester , pp 521-525 ( cita del p. 521 ) .

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.html

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.htm

CHRONOLOGY: TIMELINE 4.5 BILLION YEARS AGO TO 311 B.C ACCORDING TO SUMERIAN WRITING

4.5M+ B.C.
Our Solar System grew from a gas cloud that circled its own center counterclockwise, cooled, and formed both our sun and a dimmer pair-star, a subbrown dwarf-Nemesis.  Both the sun and Nemesis developed planets that circled them.  Tiamat, the very watery planet that would become Earth, orbited the sun between the orbits of Jupiter and Mars.

The ancient Enuma Elish relates how, 4.5 billion years ago, our sun created Tiamat, then Mercury.  The sun blew comets with water and meteorites with gold from Mercury to Earth. Planet-pairs formed: Venus/Mars, Jupiter/Saturn, and Uranus/Neptune.  These planets orbited the Sun counterclockwise, as did Tiamat.  No planet orbited between Venus and Jupiter, where the Earth now resides.  Pluto was a moon of Saturn.

Tiamat lacked a partner-planet, but one of her moons, Kingu, enlarged.  Kingu started to partner with Tiamat.  Then Kingu could orbit the Sun, not Tiamat.

But, four billion years ago, before Kingu could orbit the Sun Nibiru invaded the Sun’s inner planetary system.  Nibiru belched fire and radiation. Neptune’s gravity pulled Nibiru into the inner solar system, where it changed the orbits of all Solaris’ planets.  When it approached Tiamat,”both Tiamat and Nibiru sprouted moons.” [Lloyd, Dark Star: 41, 122 -124; ZS, 12th Planet: 219]

4M+ B.C.
Evil Wind (a moon of Nibiru) hit Tiamat. Then Nibiru hit Tiamat and scattered rocks—the asteroids–from Tiamat into orbit between Jupiter and Mars.  When Nibiru hit it also knocked the chunk of Tiamat that became Earth into orbit between Mars and Venus.  The gap in our chunk of Tiamat became our Pacific Gap, a hole in the surviving planet, a hole without a crust.

Nibiru attained a clockwise 3,600-year orbit around Nemesis and back through the Solaris System between Mars’ and Jupiter’s orbits.  Nibiru went through regions of great cold when distant from both Nemesis and Solaris.  Intense radiation and heat hit Nibiru as it neared Solaris.  But Nibiru’s volcanoes kept spewing ash into its atmosphere, so that in the cold parts of its orbit, ash kept Nibiru’s inner heat within its atmosphere.  As it neared Solaris, ash shielded Nibiru from Solaris’ heat and radiation.

Sirians, advanced beings from the Lyran stars, moved to planets in the Pleiades  (above and to the right of  Orion). 60 million years ago, Homo Sapien the Pleiadians rocketed to Earth to escape war. Other Lyrans and Pleiadians came to Earth” and created wars on Earth too. The first Pleiadians fled back to the Pleiades, some to Nibiru.  The Nibirans developed technologically advanced warring nation-states [Horn, A. and L., 1994, Humanity’s Extraterrestrial Origins, Silberschnur; ZS,Enki: 25-26].

On Nibiru, 656,000B.C. or so, nations of the Nibiru’s North and South nuked each other.  Nuclear explosions and fallout left sterile many Nibirans sterile and killed off a huge percentage of men. To end the war, leaders drew lots for rule of the planet.  AN won the drawing and created Agade, the new capitol.  As King, An imposed military rule–hierarchical, male-centered, patrilineal—and issued decrees.  An ordered men, “Take principle and secondary wives, official concubines too.”  His successors set The Law of Succession: when the King dies, his son with his father’s half-sister succeeds.

656,000B.C.+ or _
Nations of the Nibiru’s North and South nuked each other.  Nuclear explosions and fallout left many Nibirans sterile and killed off a huge percentage of men. To end the war, leaders drew lots for rule of the planet.  AN won the drawing and created Agade, the new capitol.  As King, An imposed military rule–hierarchical, male-centered, patrilineal—and issued decrees.  An ordered men, “Take principle and secondary wives, official concubines too.”  His successors set The Law of Succession: when the King dies, his son with his father’s half-sister succeeds.

500,000B.C.+ or _
Nibiru’s volcanos stopped erupting; ash no longer shielded the planet as its atmosphere thinned. 

Savants told LAHMA, then King, to nuke the volcanoes and/or send miners to the Asteroids for gold to refine into white powder of monatomic gold to float into Nibiru’s atmosphere and replace the ash. Lahma ignored the savants and instead heeded his wife, who said, “Beseech the Creator.”

Anu, Lahma’s successor, cancelled the marriage he’d planned for his (Anu’s) eldest son Enki (called then Ea) to Ninmah.  Ninmah’d incurred Anu’s wrath when she’d borne a boy–Ninurta—with Enlil, Anu’s second son.  Enlil‘s mother, ANTU, was Anu’s half-sister.  She outranked Enki’s mother.

470,000B.C.+ or _
Prince ALALU killed Lahma and pacified Anu, Lahma’s successor.  Alalu gave his daughter DAMKINA to Enki, Anu’s first son.  The boy Enki and Damkina begat would succeed as Nibiru’s king.  Alalu ruled now, Anu would attend him as Cupbearer.  Damkina bore Marduk to Enki. All prepared him to one day rule Nibiru.

To raise ash to hold Nibiru’s air, Alalu nuked the volcanoes.  This failed; the atmospheric hole grew.  He sent a rocket with fifty scientists to the Asteroids for gold. The vessel crashed into an asteroid.  All aboard died. 

460,500B.C.+ or _
Anu challenged Alalu to wrestle for rule.  Anu won.  Alalu escaped to Earth in a rocket loaded with missiles for nuking volcanoes.  On Earth, Alalu landed on marshy land–now underwater  where the Persian Gulf laps at Basara (Iraq). Then, four rivers–Tigris, Euphrates, Gehon and the mile-wide Pishon– flowed into the Gulf. He confirmed gold, targeted Agade with his nukes, and demanded return of his Crown.

King Anu gave Enki the job his half-brother Enlil coveted—charge of the mission to Earth to verify its gold.  The king told son Enki to mollify Alalu, who was Enki’s son-in-law.  Anu sent Alalu’s grandson, astronavigator ANZU and fifty men to Earth with Enki.  En-route, they landed on Mars and renewed their rocket’s water.

On Earth, Enki and Alalu set up base camp, called Edin-in seven days and extracted sample gold from the Gulf. 

Enki and ABGAL took the nuclear bombs from Alalu’s rocket and hid them in a cave in East Africa.  Then Abgal flew the gold back to Nibiru in the rocket.

444,000 B.C.+ or _
On Nibiru scientists powdered the gold.  Pilots flew the gold dust high above Nibiru. To spread spread the golddust, they used “crystal beams.” When Nibiru next neared Solaris, however, the sun’s rays blew the gold away.  Anu sent Abgal back to Earth for more gold. 

Back on Earth, Enki and Abgal traced the Gulf’s gold flecks to rich lodes in southeast Africa.[ZS, Enki: 86]

4442,000 B.C.+or_
Enlil, then Anu rocket to Earth.  They and Enki drew lots for their jobs.  Anu, Alalu said, stacked the draw, and of course, drew Nibiru; Enlil got Command of the Earth Expedition.  Enki, with the short straw, got Seas, Science and Mining.

Alalu again wrestled Anu for Nibiru.  Again Anu won.  Alalu, sore loser, bit off Anu’s penis.  Anu, hurt, held a trial that condemned Alalu to die in exile on Mars from the poison he’d ingested from the King’s penis.  Anzu said he’d stay on Mars with Alalu till the latter died.  Anu ordered Enlil to prepare a landing platform in Sumer for Nibiran spacecraft.  The King blasted off for Nibiru.

Enroute back to Nibiru, Anu ordered Anzu to plan a gold-transshipment base for Mars for Anzu to command.  Anu then had Alalu and Anzu, lowered in a “sky chamber” onto  Mars.

Back on Earth, Enki and Abgal traced the Gulf’s gold flecks to rich lodes in southeast Africa while Enlil planned seven centers in Sumer: Sippar the  Spaceport; Nippur, Mission Control; Badtibira, Metallurgical Center; Shurrupak, Med Center.  He would live at on the riverbank at Laarsa.

The Nibirans build a fleet of rockets (which Enki designed) to freight gold.  They trained  astronauts to man the rockets and to run Earth’s facilities and transshipment stations from Mars and moons of the inner Solaris-system moons.

Anu sent daughter Ninmah with 50 female medical officers to Earth. Enroute, she stopped on Mars.  Ninmah found Alalu and Anzu dead but revived Anzu.  She and Anzu carved a statue of Alalu’s head on a rock mountain [Cyndonia]. She left Anzu twenty astronauts to build a way-station for the gold freighters and blasted on to Earth, where where Enlil and Enki awaited her and each sought her womb for a male child.  

The rocket splashed down in the Persian Gulf at Erirdu (Basara, Iraq) and eased into a quay, where Enlil, now Expedition Commander, Enki, now Chief Scientist and Mining-Chief, and most of the Expedition personnel greeted her.  Enki and Enlil both wanted male babies with her, their half-sister and only half-sister on Earth.  Nibiran law held that only with boys Ninmah could beget with them would build their royal lines.

Enlil flew her to his villa in Lebanon, then a cedar-forested land, perfect, he said, for the “euphoric elixer” [grape?] seeds she brought from Nibiru. He courted her, promised her a magnificent Medical Center at Shurrupak.  He said if she’d stay with him, he’d bring their son to Earth.  Then, “with fervor he kissed her, ‘Oh my sister, my beloved,’ he whispered.  By her loins he grabbed her.”  But “Into her womb his semen he did not pour.”

She flew off with Enki, now Chief Scientist and Mining-Chief, to his place in Zimbabwe.

For many months, hurt and angry, Enlil mooned about his gardens.  Then, one day, he saw Sud, Ninmah’s gorgeous assistant.  He hid and watched her bathe in his stream with other Med-Corps women. Pretty Sud would help him get over Ninmah.  He asked Sud to get high on elixir and, when she refused him sex, raped her.

Nimmah called a Council to Judge Enlil.  “In the presence of fifty Anunnaki, Seven Who Judge assembled and decreed: Let Enlil from all cities be banished. In a skychamber [plane] they made Enlil leave the Landing Place [Lebanon] to a “Land of No Return” in Africa.” 

The Council told Abgal, Enki’s pilot who’d helped Enki hide Alalu’s nuclear missiles, “Choose Enlil’s exile site.”  In Africa, at the site he picked for Enlil, Abgal secretly defected from Enki and allied with Commander Enlil. Abgal showed Enlil the missiles in the cave where he and Enki hid them after they sneaked them out of Alalu’s rocket.

Enki thought the nukes hidden.  But, Abgal told Enlil, “At the right time, seize the missiles and prevail over all rivals.  With the weapons your freedom obtain.”  Abgal also gave Enlil the codes to activate the missiles. 

Enlil choose for now to keep secret the fact that he knew where the nukes hid and how to activate them. [ZS, Enki: 112-114]

While Enlil viewed the missiles in Africa, in Sumer, Sud’s womb swelled.  Enki and the Tribunal sympathized with her and asked if she’d marry Enlil.  If he made her Royal Wife, she would.  So Enlil returned to Lebanon, married her, and professed sexual conservatism.  Only Abgal knew he knew where the nukes hid.  

Enlil, restored to command, married Sud, gave her the title, Ninlil. Public domain image

440,000 B.C.+or_ plus 9 months
Sud, now called Ninlil (Lady of Command), bore Nannar, the first Nibiran Royal born on Earth, then Adad. [ZS, Handbook: 7; Giants: 15; Lost Realms: 116].

Ninmah spurned Enlil.  Now she could explore with former fiancee Enki.  Enki told her, “Come with me in the Abzu [Africa], your adoration of Enlil abandon.”  

In Africa, at his palace in Great Zimbabwe, “Enki to Ninmah words of loving spoke, sweet words he spoke, ‘You are still my beloved’” to her he said, caressing.  He embraced her, he kissed her, she caused his phallus to water.  Enki his semen into the womb of Ninmah poured.

“’Give me a son,’ he cried.” If he could begat a son with Ninmah, the boy would be considered a rival to Enlil and the sons of Enlil.

440,002 B.C.
Ninmah bore Ninsun, a daughter.  Enki copulated with Ninsun and begat another daughter and asked this child, his daughter’s daughter, her to begat a son with him.  Ninmah brewed an elixir of deadly herbs for him.  As Enki drank, she cursed him.  He fell to the ground, his skin turn yellow.  Then she cured him, forgave him and moved back to Sumer.

Enki seduced Ereshkigal (Enlil’s son Nannar’s daugher) as he flew her to Cape Agulhas on South Africa’s tip.  Enki delivered Ereshkigal, pregnant with his child, to the Station. There, Enki’s son, Nergal bossed the mines and energy grid that ran over all southeast Africa.  Nergal thought Ereshkigal, an Enlilite Princess, crowded him.  He attacked the Station to kill her, but instead, married her.  Pregnant already, Ereshkigal bore Ningishzidda and ran the Cape Agulhas Station while Nergal ran the mines and energy grid.

440,004 B.C.
Enki brought his wife Damkina, and their son, Marduk over from Nibiru.  Ereshkigal sent Ningishzidda, to live in Great Zimbabwe with them. 

390,000 B.C.+or_ 
Enlil built four centers in Sumer: Sippar his spaceport, Nippur, Mission Control, Shurrupak, Med Center and Badtibira, Metallurgy Center.  Enki’s submersible boats took gold from southeast Africa to Badtibira.  At Badtibira, technicians processed the gold into bars. At Nippur, Enlil build the Dur.An.Ki–Bond Heaven-Earth [also Navel of Earth], a communication chamber with telescopes connected to a tall broadcasting tower where Enlil could talk with similar towers in each Nibiran center and where Nibirans on rockets spoke with Earth.

380,000 B.C.+or
Anzu and the Igigi Astronaut Corps rebelled, seized Lebanon Landing Platform, immobilized Sumer.  Ninurta, Enlil’s and Ninmah’s son, defeated and executed Anzu.

369,200 B.C.+or_
Enki instigated mutiny among the Nibirans working the goldmines in Africa.  He said, “Add Homo Erectus genes to the Nibiran genome and make mine-slaves.”

298,000 B.C.+or_
Enki, Ningishzidda and Ninmah at Enki’s lab, Great Zimbabwe, adapted their genome to create us, the slave species, to work the mines.  They added clay, copper and a few Homo Erectus genes to adapt their DNA and mitochondrial DNA structure to Earth.  At first they used Anunnaki surrogates, then created a breeding pair, Adamu and Ti-Amat.

286,000 B.C..+or_
Nibiru’s perigee dislodged and hurled meteors–asteroid bits–at Earth, created intense warming, earthquakes, hurricanes and floods on Earth and on Mars, ruined the atmosphere and enveloped Mars in dust  storms.  Marbase, ruined, Marduk’s Command on Mars ended. Enki promised to help Marduk, once successor to Nibiru Crown, get his turn to rule. [“Eighty Nibiran shars = 3,600 Earth years years x 80 from Alalu’s splashdown in 450,000 B.C.; ZS, Enki: 156]

70,000 years ago

Bantu slaves fled to India after winds from Toba Volcano in Sumatra spewed poisonous gasses to Africa and caused an ice-age  [Tellinger, Temples: 122 – 124].

49, 000 years ago
Enlil, enraged that Enki and Ninmah let Earthlings rule Shuruppak, vowed Earthlings’genocide. 

10,800 years ago
Nibiru reached its furthest point (apogee] from Earth and debris at perigee, the opposite LaGrange point in its orbit, created a sudden warming of Earth’s northern oceans and began the catastrophic melting of Earth’s ice sheets. [Lloyd,  Dark Star: 248] Or, Nibiru itself may have crossed between Mars and Jupiter. In any case,  Earthlings’ living standard worsened and we regressed to living in caves and in the bush.  Each generation’s life became poorer. 

15,000 B.C.
Aztec legend cited in the Codex Boturini relates a Nibiran god “whose symbol was a seeing eye on an elliptical rod” guided four clans in boats” from Sumer to Guatemala.  “The four clans trekked inland, split into several tribes. One, the Mexica, reached Tenochtilan.”  Tenochtitlan means “‘The City of Enoch’– the son of Cain.” [ZS: Time: 261] 

11,000 B.C.
Nibiru perigee tore Nibiru’s gold shield, slid Antarctica’s Icecap into the sea and caused the Deluge.

The Prime Creator sent Galzu with a comuter file for Enki to download into Ziasudra’s wall-computer.  Enki had begat Ziasudra with his slave-overseer’s wife.  Enki sent his genetically pure Nibiran son Ninagal to Ziasudra.  Ninagal piloted the ship to Mt. Ararat (Turkey).

Nibiran Goldmining Expedition leaders got Enlil to rule through Ziasudra and Shem, Japhet and Ham–Ziasudra’s sons–and their descendants.

Enki and Ninmah recovered genetic starts from diorite vault in Ed-In.

11,000 – 10,900 B.C.
Anunnaki renewed Earth’s crops and beasts and created the Age of Domestication (Neolithic).  Ninurta built dams and drained floodwaters into rivers for Sumer.  Enki reclaimed the Nile Basin. Ningishzidda built new Sinai Spaceport with controls on Mt. Moriah, the Jerusalem to-be.

10,900 B.C.
Uranus drifted away from the Sun and sped Nibiru toward Earth sooner than 3,600 years. As Nibiru flew by, Uranus caught The City of Enoch, a moon of Nibiru.  Miranda, now a moon of Uranus, circled it instead of Nibiru. 

9380 B.C.
Marduk, Enki’s first son, divided Egypt between his sons, Seth and Osiris.  Seth killed Osiris, ruled the Nile.

8970 B.C.
Pyramid War I, Osiris’ son Horus beat Seth, who fled, seized Sinai and Canaan

8670 B.C.
Pyramid War II, Enlil’s son’s daughter Inanna and Enlilites defeated Enkiites.  Ninurta broke and took Enkiite weapons, energy generation machines and communication devices in Giza Pyramid.  Ninmah convened peace conference.  Enlil and Enki replaced Marduk with Ningishzidda/Thoth as Nile Ruler.

8500 B.C.
Nibirans reserved Jerico for themselves and their hybrid offspring.

7500 B.C.
Anunnaki taught Earthlings pottery technology.

7400 B.C.
Ninurta built Kish with fifty ME programs (for math, smiting, pottery, beer, wagons, wheels and law) Enki gave him.

3840 B.C.
Anu visited Earth, took Inanna as lover, saw Titicaca facilities and pardoned Marduk.

Ziasudra’s sons ruled for the Nibirans–Shem’ s descendants settled the ex-spaceport area of Iraq and the Landing Place at Lebanon.  Japhet’s issue ruled lands in Asia Minor, the Black and Caspian Sea areas, also nearby coasts and islands.  Enki and his descendants ruled Egypt and Africa though successors of Ziusudra’s son Ham the Dark.  Ham’s line ruled Canaan, Mizra’im, Cush, Nubia, Ethiopia, Egypt, and Libya from the highlands.  Ham’s descendants spread to the reclaimed lowlands.

Ninmah reigned for Nibirans and their descendants in Sinai.

4500 B.C.
Earthlings regressed, abandoned villages and stopped making pottery.

3760 B. C.
Inanna chose the first King, the Lugal, to direct, for the gods, Sumer’s Earthlings, to create “a civilization in which our own is firmly rooted.”  The gods “picked Earthlings out of their decline and raised them to a higher level of culture, knowledge and civilization.’ [ZS. 12tPlanet: 10 -11]

Enlil’s Sons and grandsons gave Sumer assemblies, courts, schools, writing, printing, prospecting, mining, road- and ship building in a petrol-fueled money economy.

3460 B.C.
Marduk added Babylon on the Euphrates River to Enkiite fief at Eridu.

3350B.C.
Nibiru, as it reached perigee at the edge of the Kuiper Comet Belt, caused solar flares and severe heating on Earth.

3500 B.C.
Anunnaki had Earthlings use surface deposits of oil in Sumer to fuel kilns, build roads, paint and fracture chemicals.

3450 B.C.
Enlil and Anu let Marduk marry Earthling Sarpanit to stop him from ever ruling Nibiru.

Inanna and Dumuzi flirted at Marduk’s wedding.  Marduk coordinated the rite so his astronaut (Igigi) allies who attended revolted. They abducted 200 Adapite Earthling women, conquered the on-planet Baalbek Landing Platform, forced Commander Enlil to recognize the women they kidnaped as legal wives.  The Igigi forced Enlil to give them estates on Earth.  They prepared to man the interplanetary launch platform Marduk said he’d build in Babylon.  But Enlilites bombed Babylon, jumbled speech.

3100 B.C.
Marduk–aka Ra–deposed Ningishzidda–aka Thoth–as Egypt’s ruler.

The present era identified in Hindu tradition and just ending, the Kaliyuga, began. Marduk got Dumuzi killed so Dumuzi wouldn’t marry Inanna and rule Africa with Dumuzi.  Innana went to Dumuzi’s brother Nergal so he’d impregnate her for Dumuzi. Nergal’s wife Ereshkigal killed Inanna. Enki’s robots revived Inanna.

3100 – 3113 B.C.

Ningishzidda/Thoth/Quezelcoatl/Kuklaklan and his Olmec and Sumerian assistants built Stonehenge in England.  They helped Adad/Viracocha design observatories and smelting facilities at Tiahuanaco, Peru.  “The actual domain of Quezelcoatl/Thoth was Mesoamerica and Central America, the lands of the Nauhuatl-speaking and Mayan tribes, but his influence extended southward into the northern parts of the South American continent.  [ZS, Time:296]

2900 B.C.
Enlil’s dynasty ruled Sumer from 2900 B.C. to 2024 B.C..  One of the kings through whom the Nibirans ruled, Gilgamesh of Uruk–a 3/4 Nibiran, 1/4 Royal Earthling (son of Ninurta’s daughter Ninsun and Lugal Banda)–destroyed Enlil’s robo-guard but unsuccessfully sought immortality and life-extending herbs the Lebanon Landing Place.

Inanna ruled The Indus Valley & Uruk, Igigi astronauts followed her to Indus Valley.

2600 B.C.
Gilgamesh died; his successors buried him with his friends and attendants (killed for the occasion) in the Royal Cemetery at Lagash.

2500 B.C.
Nibirans shipped and flew Black Olmec managers across the Atlantic to Mexico [ZS, Time: 300] 

2371 B.C.
Inanna and Sargon launched the Akkadian Empire from Agade.

2316 B.C.
Sargon invaded Marduk’s empty stronghold, Babylon.

2291 B.C.
Inanna, Naram-Sin (Sargon’s grandson) and the Akkadian armies captured the Lebanon Landing Platform and won Jerico, the private city of the Igigi astronauts’ and their Earthling wives.

In Sumer, only Ninurta’s city, Lagash, held out against Inanna and Naram-Sin. Inanna invaded Egypt.

2255 B.C.
Inanna recaptured Uruk, destroyed Anu’s temple there and sent Naram-Sin to attack Enlil’s minions at Nippur.  She declared herself supreme to Anu, King of Nibiru and father of Enlil, her father’s father.

2250 B.C.

Ninurta’s Gutians beat Inanna and occupied Sumer.  She fled to Nergal in Lower Africa.

2220 B.C.

Gutians left Sumer, returned to the Zagros Mountains where Ninurta gave them horse cavalry, which extended their reach thousands of miles.

Ninghzidda and Lagash’s King Gudea built temple, hangar and Zodiac Time Observatory for Ninurta, who reasserted Enlilite power over Sumer.

2180 B.C.
Egypt split into Marduk’s south, his rivals’ north.

2113 B.C.
Nannar ruled Sumer from Ur, his commerce, manufacturing and cult center; he introduced money and credit as an alternative to war to control us.  He choose Ninsun’s son Ur-Nammu King.  Enlil sent High Priest Terah from Nippur to represent him at Nannar’s court in Ur.

2096 B.C.
Ur-Nammu died in a chariot accident and the boat with his remains sunk; Earthlings rated Enlilites weak.

2095 B.C.
Shulgi succeeded Ur Nammu and wed Inanna.  Shulgi and Elamites conquered Canaan but failed to drive Nabu from Sinai.

2080 B.C.
Marduk’s Thebans under Mentuhotep I advanced on Northern Egypt.

2049 B.C.
Shulgi, unable to protect Mission Control at Sinai or the Landing Place in Lebanon from Marduk and Nabu, built a wall to defend Sumer’s western border. Enlil, annoyed at Shulgi for orgying with Inanna in Anu’s temple, ordered him killed for failure to protect the Enlilite realms.

2048  B.C.
Enlil replaced Shulgi with Amar-Sin and sent Amar-Sin to crush a revolt in the north and then fight an alliance of five kings along the Mediterranean in the west.  Enlil also sent his general, Abraham (son of Ur’s High Priest Terah), now trained in Hatti in Hittite military tactics, with cavalry to Canaan.  After Abraham left Harran for Sinai, Maruk allied with Adad, ousted Nannar, moved in and cut Sumer’s trade with the Hittites.

2047 B.C.
Marduk’s son Nabu brought cities west of the Euphrates and Canaan against the Enlilites. Marduk’s Egyptians in the south attacked his enemies in Northern Egypt.  Elam’s King Kudur-Laghamar threatened the Enlil’s Sinai Spaceport.

2041 B.C.
Abraham with Enlil’s men and camels and Northern Egyptians blocked both Nabu’s forces and Ninurta’s Elamites from the Spaceport.]

2040 B.C.
Mentuhotep II, Marduk’s Theban Pharaoh, took Egypt all the way to the western approaches to Sinai.  Amar-Sin sailed to Sinai to block Marduk’s Egyptians, defected to Enki and became his priest in Eridu, Enki’s cult center in Sumer.  Amar-Sin died suspiciously of a poisonous bite.  Enlil made Shu-Sin Overseer of Sumer and built a shrine for Inanna’s son Shara at Nippur.

2039 B.C.
Ibbi-Sin succeeded Shu-Sin.  Marduk returned to Babylon as Enlil left Sumer.

2025 B.C.
Marduk menaced the Spaceport. Abraham and Lot told Ninurta and Nergal the cities of south area of the Dead Sea defected to Nabu.

Enlil sent Abraham to the Negev Desert, then to Canaan.  To brand Abraham’s men as loyal Enlilites, Enlil made them circumcise each other.

Abraham’s principal wife, Sarah, bore Isaac in Canaan.  Enlil ordered Abraham to leave his secondary wife, Hagar, and Heir-Apparent Is-mael in the desert so Isaac, Abraham’s son with Sarah, would rule Enlil’s troops in Canaan. 

2024 B.C.
Enlil said he knew where Enki hid Alalu’s nukes.  With Anu’s okay, Ninurta bombed Sinai; Nergal nuked Sodom, Gomorra, and killed the Dead Sea.  Fallout engulfed Sumer, killing all south of Babylon except people from Eridu whom Enki saved.

2023 B.C.
Sumerians fled throughout the Mediterranean and along the Volga to Geogia, Sumara and Finland.  They settled along the Danube to Dacia and Hungary.  They migrated also to India and the Far East. Marduk, now supreme, made Babylon Sumer’s capital.

2016 B.C.
For forty days, with a crystal-tipped electrum stylus, Endubscar, Master Scribe of Eridu, Sumer, wrote on a lapis lazuli tablet what Enki dictated.

2000 B.C.
Marduk said, “I’m the gods’ God.”  He renamed Nibiru “Marduk,” and held New Year rituals that enacted how he invaded the inner solar system and made Earth, then Earthlings.

Isaac sent his son Jacob/Israel to Harran to marry Isaac’s Uncle Leban’s girls.  En-route, Jacob watched Enlil and crew come and go from a skyship.  Jacob worked twenty years for Leban.  Then Enlil ordered him “To Canaan return.”  Jacob paused at the Jordan River, wrestled and pinned a Nibiran (“angel” in Bible).

1800 B.C.
Sumerians took cuneiform writing, bronze weapons, chariots and walled cities to China’s Shang Dynasty.

1840 B.C.
Pharaoh Amenemhet III of Middle Kingdom’s XII dynasty took Egypt’s throne in 1842. He hired Jacob’s son Joseph to interpret dreams, then to oversee Egypt through drought to come. Joseph stored water and invited descendants of Jacob/Israel to Egypt.

1833 B.C.
Jacob/Israel and his tribe joined Joseph in Egypt.  For 400 years, they prospered and multiplied till they numbered some 600,000.

1650 B.C.
Marduk’s New Kingdom pharaohs took Egypt.  Thothmose I invaded Enlilite Sumer to the Euphrates River, where Abraham’s kin lived.  Thothmose knew Enlilites would strike back and feared Jacob descendants in Egypt would join the Enlilites and strike from within, so he broke the Middle Kingdom promise that Egypt honor “Children” of Israel.

1600 B.C.
The cluster trail of comets and rocks at the 180 degree position on Nibiru’s orbit crossed the orbit of Mars and Jupiter.  This orbiting debris bombarded Earth.

1482 B.C.
Thothmose III attacked Enlilites abroad and brutilized Israelites within Egypt.  Moses, now grown, killed an Egyptian overseer.  Though Pharoh ordered Moses killed, he escaped to Sinai and there married a Midianite priest’s daughter. 

1450 B.C.
Amenhotep II, the new Pharaoh, let Moses’ death sentence expire.  Enlil told Moses, “Go to Egypt, show the Pharoh magic.  Tell him to let my people go.”  But Amenhotep instead demanded the Israelites make three times more bricks.  Enlil gave Egypt plagues, infestations, cattle diseases, darkness, weather disturbances.  He killed all non-Israelite firstborn children and cows in Egypt. Finally, in 1433, Pharaoh told the Israelites, “Go,” then sent chariots to re-capture them.  Enlil, with climate control devises, swept a path through the Red Sea, then let the sea drown the charioteers.

1433 – 1383 B.C.
For forty years,, Enlil led Moses and the Israelites through the desert to the edge of Sinai and Nights, he led with a “fiery beacon,” days, he led with a dark cloud.  He fed the Israelites and protected them from Amalekites.   Enlil demanded they kill 3000 of their number who worshiped other Nibirans and kill 23,000 for sex before they married. [Exodus 32:26-28; Corinthians 10:8; ZS,Divine:295].

1383 B.C.
Enlil had Moses climb Mt. Sinai then relay demands to the Israelites.  Moses told the Israelites what Enlil wanted.  Enlil landed his aircraft on the mount and, with an amplifier, told the people himself what he wanted.  They knew they had to say they’d obey or he’d kill them.

Enlil again flew to the mountaintop, ordered Moses up, and gave Moses stone tablets with commandments and showed him how to build a temple and a housing for the tablets (an “Ark of the Covenant”) and a Talk-To-Enlil Comm unit.  Moses’ brother Aaron and his priest-lineage could message Enlil, pose questions, and get “Yes” or “No” answers. The ark and its stones weighed many tons. Enlil had Moses hide a monoatomic white powder of gold to lighten the ark. [Tellinger:Africemples: 86].  When Moses returned to the Israelites, he glowed with radiation from Enlil ’s shuttlecraft.  His tablets told the Israelites to reject all other Nibiran gods, spend every seventh day worshiping him, subjugate women and kids, refrain from murder, adultery, theft and false witness.  They must not crave others’ homes, wives, slaves and property.

1394 B.C.
A comet hit Earth, disintegrated, made day last 20 hours as Joshua and the Israelites attacked the Canaanites near Beth-Horon and delayed sunrise 20 hours at Teotihuacan in the Andes.

1393 B.C.
Israelites, in Genesis, falsified how Enki, Ninmah and Thoth created us.  The Bible writers used Genesis to justify a national religion that glorified Enlil as Yahweh, the one and only god.

1200 B.C.
Enlilite’s King Tiglat-Pileser I of Assyria beat Lebanon and caught Marduk.  Migrants and invaders flooded western Asia, Asia Minor, the Mediterranean coast and Arabia.  Peoples of the Sea, repulsed in Egypt, invaded Canaan.  Enlil choose Saul then David to rule in Israel.

Agamemnon, Menelaus and Odysseus led Greeks against Hittite allies of Adad and Inanna at Troy.  Diamedes, a part-Nibiran Greek Earthling, injured Inanna but she recovered.  Her son, Aeneas, fought on the Trojan side, fled to Carthage, then, Virgil asserted, to Italy.

9th Century B.C.
Adad and Nergal again sent an Assyrian king–Shalmaneser III–with technologically-advanced artillery against Marduk’s Babylonians. Shalmaneser won.

1000 B.C.
Ninghzidda and his followers ran high-civilization Yucatan temple centers.

1003 B.C.
Israelite leader David took Jerusalem and made it his Capitol.

931 B.C.
David’s successor, Solomon, died; Abraham’s descendants split their turf into the kingdoms of Judea in the south, Israel on the north. Until 910 B.C., Jeroboam, Rehoboam, Abijah, Nadab, Baasah, Elah, Zimri, then Omri ruled Israel.

872 B.C.
Ithbaal, King of Tyre gave his daughter Jezebel to Ahab, the successor to Omri as King of Israel to create Phoenician-Israeli alliance.  Jehu (Enlil’s agent) purged Ahab’s dynasty and killed the alliance with Phoenicia.  Jehu made Israel subject to Syria.  Syria dispersed Israel’s intelligencia throughout the Assyrian empire.

722 B.C.
Assyrian king Shalmaneser V captured Samaria in Israel.  Sargon II, Shalmanser’s successor, exiled Israelites from northern Israel.

689 B.C.
Sargon’s son, Sennacherib, shelled then sacked Babylon on the pretext that Babylonians disappointed Marduk.  Sennacherib sentenced the Babylonians to seventy years Assyrians would occupy their city.  He took Phoenicia, Gaza and Judea.  Then–without Adad’s okay–attacked Jerusalem.  Enlil, who controlled Mission Control Jerusalem, hit his erstwhile Assyrian allies with a techno-weapon that killed 185,000 of them.  Sennacherib fled back to Nineva in Sumer and named his younger son  Esarhaddon his successor.

612 B.C.
Babylon’s King Nabupolassar took Nineva, the Assyrian capitol; the Assyrians retreated to Harran.  Sennacherib’s older sons killed him, but the Nibirans hid Esarhaddon.  Enlil sent Inanna to Assyria where she disarmed the Ninevan army, burned their weapons and made Esarhaddon King. She and her king attacked Marduk’s Egyptian forces and she blinded them with a techno-weapon.

614-612 B.C.
Enlil let Babylonians conquer Assyria and sent Babylon’s king Nebuchadnezzar II to take Lebanon.

610 B.C.- 650 B.C.
Most Anunnaki left Earth from Nazca.

600 B.C.
Ningishzidda left Central America.  Native Mayas, for the next 100 years, revolted, drove Olmecs and their Sumerian bosses farther south and slew them.

587 B.C.
Marduk’s Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar overran Enlilite forces in Jerusalem. Nebuchadnezzer installed a puppet king, ordered worship of Marduk, and took leading citizens of the city as hostages back to Babylon.

586 B.C.
Nebuchadnezzar deposed the king he left in Jerusalem and burned the temple to Enlil that King Solomon had built there.

539 B.C.
Cyrus of Persia, whom Marduk welcomed, conquered Babylon and returned Nebuchadnezzar’s hostages to Jerusalem.  Cyrus’ successor, Cambyses, brought Sumer, Mari, Mittani, Hatti, Elam, Assyria, Egypt and, of course Babylon, into the Persian Empire.

522 B.C.
Darius murdered Cambyses and ruled the extended Persian Empire.

490 B.C.
Darius unsuccessfully invaded Greece.

480 B.C.
Darius’s successor, Xerxes, unsuccessfully attacked Greece again.

482 B.C.
Xerxes decided to destroy the tomb of Marduk, who’d recently died in Babylon.  Marduk’s son and prophet, Nabu disappeared.

400 B.C.
Mochica, coastal Peru, precursor to Chimu civilization, featured fifteen-foot wide roads, pottery, textiles, mud-brick pyramids and decoration showed Adad and other Sumerian gods–referred to as Giants–and art styles with gold from Andean highlands.

338 B.C.
philip ii of macedonia united Greece.  His son apparent, Alexander, thought Marduk had actually fathered him. 

334 -323 B.C.
Alexander conquered the Persian Empire, the Indus and Egypt; Egyptian priests at Siwa confirmed Alexander as Marduk’s son.

331 B.C.
Alexander reached Babylon and rushed to the ziggurat temple to grasp the hands of Marduk as conquerors before him had done.  But Alexander saw Marduk’s dead body preserved in oils in his ziggurat.

311 B.C.
Indian descendants of Ka-in killed remaining Olmecs and Sumerians in Central America.

 

REFERENCES

Allan, D. & Delair, J.,
1995,  When The Earth Nearly Died: Compelling Evidence of a World Catacylsm
11,5000 Years Ago, Gateway

Alford, A.
1996, Gods of the New Millennium: Scientific Proof of Flesh and Blood Gods, Eridu Books
1998, The Phoenix Solution, Hodder & Stoughton

Ancient Aliens, Seasons 1-4, A&E Television Workshops

Arthur, C., 2002, “More Signs the Solar System Has Tenth Planet”
http://www.news.independent.co.uk/world/story.jsp?story=360803

Bagby, J.
1982, Evidence for a New Planet or Massive Solar Companion Beyond Uranus
1984, “Further Speculations on Planet X”, Kronos’ Journal, Vol IX, No. 3.

Bauval, R., and Hancock
1996, The Keeper of Genesis,  Mandarin

Bauuval, R. and Gilbert, A.
1994, The Orion Mystery, Mandarin

Bond, P.
2004, “Brown Dwarfs Form in The Same Way as Stars,” Astronomy Now, March: 13

Brooks, M.
2005, “Thirteen Things That Do Not Make Sense,” New Scientist, March 2005

Bramley, W..
1989, The Gods of Eden, Avon

Chatelain, M.
1979, Our Ancestors Came From Outer Space, Pan

Clark, D., W.,
1959, History of the Primates, Phoenix

Childe, G.,
1960, What Happened in History, Pelican

Childress, D.,
2000, Technology of the Gods, Adventures Unlimited
2012, Ancient Technology in Peru and Bolivia, Adventures Unlimited

Colaw, J.,
2000, A Neil Freer Interviewhttp://www.ufodisclosure.com/freer2.html

Cremo, M. and Thompson, R.,
1993,  Forbidden Archeology: The Hidden History of the Human Race, Torchlight

Cremo, M.,
2003, Human Devolution: A Vedic Alternative to Darwin’s Theory, Torchlight
2001, Forbidden Archeology’s Impact, Torchlight

Couper, H. & Henbest, N.,

2002, The Hunt For Planet X, New Scientist, Dec. 14, 2002

d’Arc, J.,

2000, Space Travelers & Genesis of the Human Form, Book Tree

Davies, J.,

2001, Beyond Pluto, Cambridge

DoHerarty, J.,

2011, Did Enki Give Humans Knowledge Against Anunnaki Law?

youtube.com/watch?v=HkRAxC70-to

Diamond, J.,

2011, Collapse, Penguin

Doreal, M.

2002, The Emerald Tablets of Thoth-The-Atlantian, Source Books

Freer, N.

1999, God Games, Book Tree

2000, Breaking the Godspell, Book Tree

2004, Sapiens Rising,  neilfreer.com/SRPAGE2.html

2004b, The Alien Question,  neilfreer.com/SRPAGE8.html

2008, Sapiens Rising: The View From 2100, Electronic Dragon

Gardiner, L.

2000, Bloodline of the Holy Grail, Fair Winds

Goldschmidt, W.

1959, Man’s Way: 110 -117

Goodman, M.

2008, Rome and Jerusalem, Vintage

Google Images, 2012 (source of all public domain images in this book)

Hapgood, C.
1997, Maps of the Ancient Sea Kings, Adventures Unlimited

Hauck, D.

1999, The Emerald Tablet, Penguin

Hoagland, R. & Bara, M.

2007, Dark Mission: The Secret History of NASA

Holland, T.

2005, Persian Fire, Anchor

Kramer, S.

1971,  The Sumerians, University of Chicago

Lessin, S.
2000, www.enkispeaks.com/wordpress

2011, “ETs from Planet Nibiru”, UFOs and Supernatural Magazine,                  Vol 1:2

2011, “A Chat with Dr. Sasha Lessin”, UFOs and Supernatural Magazine, Vol 1:2

2011 “Extraterrestrials Engineered Our Species” UFOs and Supernatural Magazine, Issue 4

2011, “ The Anunnaki’s Great Deluge: The True and Original Story ” UFOs and    Supernatural Magazine, Feb-March Issue

2012, Anunnaki: Gods No More, Unmasking Technologically Advanced Goldminers from the Planet Nibiru Who Posed as Divine, Createspace

Lloyd, A.

2001, Winged Disc: The Dark Star Theory, http/www.darkstar.co.uk

2004, “Planet X: Past and Present,” UFO Magazine, January 2004

2005, Dark Star: The Planet X Evidence, Timeless Voyager

Matase, P., Whitman, P. And Whitmire, D.,

1999, “Commentary Evidence of Massive Body in the Outer Ort Cloud,” Icarus 141

McKee, M.

2004, “Stray Star May Have Jolted Sedna,”        http://www.newscientist.com//news/news/jsp?id=99996204

Mills, C.W.
1956, The Power Elite, Oxford

Mitchell, S.
2004, Gilgamesh, Free Press

Muir, H.
2005, “Brown Dwarf May Harbour Habitable Planets” New Scientist,              Feb.8
Murray, J.B.
1999, Mon. Not. R.Astron. Soc, 309, 31-34
Mruzek, J.
1998, The Abyddos Helicopter & The Golden Section,

vejprty.com/abyhelic.htm
New Scientist
2004, “Rogue Star Smashed Up The Solar System” February, 2004

Pike, A.
2004, “Exoplanets: What’s New” UFO Magazine, February, 2004

Pye, L.
2000, Everything You Know Is Wrong: Book 1: Human Origins,                 Author’s Choice

2000, Cyclostratigraphywww.coastalvillage.com
Redfern, Martin, 1 Henbest and Nigel
1983, “Has IRAS Found a Tenth Planet?” New Scientist, 10/11/1983
Santillalana,G. and Von Deschend, H.
1969, Hamlet’s Mill, Gambit

Schultz, D.
The Earth Chronicles Time Chart,

Sereda, D.
2012, Breakthrough: Faster Than Light Communication with ET, Open Minds

Sitchin, J.,

2011, Zecharia Sitchin Official Website [Website in citations] Sitchin, Z. [ZS in text attributions]

1976, The 12th Planet, Avon

1983, The Stairway to Heaven [Stairway], Avon

1985, The Wars of Gods and Men [Wars], Avon

1990, Genesis Revisited Avon

1990, The Lost Realms Avon

1993, When Time Began [Time], Avon

1995, Divine Encounters [Encounters], Avon

1996, Of Heaven and Earth, Book Tree

1998 The Cosmic Code, Avon

2002, The Lost Book of Enki [Enki], Bear

2004, The Earth Chronicles Expeditions [Expeditions], Bear

2007, The End of Days, HarperCollins

2007, Journeys to the Mythical Past  [Journeys], Bear

2009 The Earth Chronicles Handbook [Handbook], Bear

2010 There Were Giants Upon The Earth [Giants], Bear

Strauss, B.,

2006,  The Trojan War, Simon & Schuster

Tellinger, M.,

2006, Slave Species of god [Slave Species], Music Masters

2009, Temples of the African Gods, [Temples], Zulu Planet

2011,White Powder of Gold, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tp-WNrwQhk

2012a Temples of the African Gods,

2012b Michael Tellinger Youtube: Bantu Fled African ET-ruled Civilization after Sumatra

Eruption 70,000 Years Ago http://stargatetothecosmos.com/michael-tellinger-youtubebantu-fled-african-et-ruled-civilizat ion-after-sumatra-eruption-70000-years-ago/

TenBruggencate, J.,

2002, “Asteroid Theory Explores Imact on Earth Life” Honolulu Advertiser 3/24/02

Thompson, R.,

1993, Alien Identities, Govardham Hill

Trujillo, C. & Brown, M., 2002, “A Correlation Between Inclination and Color in the Classical Kuiper Belt” The Astrophysics Journal, December, 2002

UFOTV: Are We Alone? Geneis Revisited http://enkispeaks.com/2012/09/03/1603

Velikovsky, I.

Undated, In The Beginning

Wilkins, H.,

1945, Mysteries of South America, Rider

Wood, J.,

1984, The Origin of The Moon, Lunar Planet Institute
***

 

THE GREAT SPHINX CONTROVERSY

picture of the great sphinx seen on diagonal

by

Dr. Robert M. Schoch

The Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt, has long been thought to have been carved  by the Fourth Dynasty pharaoh Khafre (Chephren) about 2500 B.C.  Recently I have determined that, in fact, the Great Sphinx was built in stages and I have estimated that the earliest portions of the statue (the core body of the Sphinx) date back to the period of 7000 to 5000 B.C.  My re-dating of the Sphinx is now well ‑ established.  The evidence for an earlier Sphinx has been duly published in appropriate journals [1], discussed at major scientific meetings without being falsified [2] and thus far the hypothesis of an older Sphinx has not been convincingly refuted. [3] My work on the Great Sphinx has also received quite a bit of attention in the popular press. [4] Here it is not my purpose to restate the scientific evidence for an older Sphinx (interested readers are referred to the articles already cited in the footnotes, or may write to me directly at Boston University); rather, in this note I will briefly describe a few of the interesting tactics used by some of my critics in attempting to discredit my work on the Sphinx.

To begin with, one must realize (as I did not at first) that the dating of the Great Sphinx seems to be a very touchy subject for most modern Egyptologists.  Despite the fact that some of the early founders of modern Egyptology (such as Sir Flinders Petrie, Sir E. A. Wallis Budge, and Sir G. C. Maspero) were open to the notion that the Sphinx may be older than the Fourth Dynasty pyramids that it seems to guard, and ancients from New Kingdom Egyptians to Romans (circa 1400 B.C. to 400 A.D.) generally thought that the Sphinx was older than the pyramids, modern Egyptologists have galvanized around the dogma that the Great Sphinx was built by Khafre, circa 2500 B.C.  The basis for this attribution is purely circumstantial, the strongest piece of evidence being the reputed similarity between the face of the Sphinx and the face of Khafre as seen on other statues.  Yet forensic expert Frank Domingo of the New York Police Department has definitively proven that the face of the Sphinx and the face seen on signed statues of Khafre are not of the same person (4); indeed, the face of the Sphinx apparently does not pertain to the same race as the face seen on statues of Khafre (the Sphinx has a distinctive “African,” “Nubian,” or “Negroid” aspect which is lacking in the face of Khafre).

Still, most living Egyptologists maintain that the Sphinx was built by, or at least around the time of, Khafre.  Questioning the age of the Sphinx seems to shake the very foundations of conventional Egyptology.  A much older Sphinx calls into question the conventional wisdom concerning when and how civilization developed in the Nile Valley.  Maybe mainstream Egyptology will be forced to rethink their traditional story as to exactly who the dynastic Egyptians were and where they came from (both geographically and culturally).  On the whole, the Egyptologists insist that the peoples of Egypt did not have the technology or social organization to cut out the core body of the Sphinx in predynastic times.  An older Sphinx implies that a highly sophisticated culture existed along the banks of the Nile at an earlier time than hitherto imagined.  Maybe the whole notion of cultural progress will have to be reconsidered.

When told of my work on re-dating the Sphinx, Egyptologist Carol Redmount of the University of California, Berkeley, was quoted and paraphrased as saying (LOS ANGELES TIMES, 23 October 1991, p. A18):  ” ‘There’s just no way that could be true [that the oldest portion of the Sphinx dates back to 5000 B.C. or earlier].’  The people of that region would not have had the technology, the governing institutions or even the will to build such a structure thousands of years before Khafre’s reign, she said.”  And Redmount continued, stating “that conclusion [that the Sphinx is considerably older than Khafre] flies in the face of ‘everything we know about ancient Egypt.’ ”  Likewise, Peter Lacovara, assistant curator of the Egyptian department of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, attempted to dismiss my work by stating (quoted from THE BOSTON GLOBE, 23 October 1991, p. 8):  “That’s ridiculous. . . Thousands of scholars working for hundreds of years” [a bit of an overstatement as to how many persons have seriously studied the Sphinx] have studied this topic . . . “the chronology is pretty well worked out.  There are no big surprises in store for us.”

The Egyptological community did little to address my arguments and data.  One of the most cogent statements made against my data was Dr. K. Lal Gauri’s:  “Neither the subsurface evidence nor the weathering evidence indicates anything as far as the age is concerned.  It’s just not relevant” (SCIENCE, 14 February 1992, vol. 255, p. 793).  But of course such a statement lacks any objective basis.  The reason this evidence is “not relevant” to my critics is that they cannot accept the implications of the evidence.  They “know” when the Sphinx was built, and no evidence can overthrow their long‑cherished beliefs.  Since they cannot refute the evidence, it is dismissed as not relevant.

The main tactic used to counter my heresy was to try to dismiss me as a quack and non‑ person.  Dr. Kathryn Bard (Archaeology Department, Boston University) strongly implied (in BOSTON UNIVERSITY TODAY, 11‑17 November 1991, p. 6), by association, that my work on the Sphinx falls into the same category as that of “charlatans and sensation seekers.” (as a side note, thus far Dr. Bard has refused to debate me in person on the topic despite an invitation from a neutral branch of Boston University to arrange such a meeting) Dr. Mark Lehner of the University of Chicago accused me of practicing “pseudoscience” (NEW YORK TIMES, 9 February 1992, p. 16).  Dr. Zahi Hawass, then Director of Antiquities of the Giza Plateau and Sakkara, referred to the research as “American hallucinations” (see J. A. West, 1993, Serpent (revised edition), p. 229).  To top it all off, an article was published in the Arabic newspaper “Al‑ Ahram” (Cairo, 24 November 1991) in which it was allegedly stated [I do not read Arabic, thus I have only read a translation of the article; see also P. W. Roberts, 1993, River in the Desert, p. 129] that Dr. James Wiseman (Chairman of the Archaeology Department, Boston University) asserted that I am not a member of the Boston University community.  Of course, this is in error ‑‑ I am a full‑time, permanent (tenured) faculty member at Boston University.  I am not, however, a member of the Archaeology Department in the College of Liberal Arts, Boston University, but rather a member of the Division of Science and Mathematics in the College of General Studies (formerly the College of Basic Studies) Boston University.  Boston University consists of some fifteen Schools and Colleges, and over 2,400 faculty members; perhaps the confusion concerning my affiliation with Boston University is due to the size of the university and the number of different academic units it contains.

Clearly the Egyptological community was up in arms, and the easiest way to get rid of me (or so they thought) was with ad hominem attacks on my person.  A large part of the problem seemed to be that I was an “outsider” (my Ph.D. is in geology and geophysics from Yale), and off the record I was even told by an Egyptologist that there were plenty of rocks for me to study other than those on the Giza Plateau where the Sphinx stands.

Was the Great Sphinx Surrounded By a Moat?

According to Robert Temple, a moat theory explains the water weathering of the Sphinx without hypothesizing that it dates back to an earlier period of more rainfall than the present. I will not address his other hypotheses, which I do not find persuasive, that the Sphinx was the jackal [wild dog] Anubis and the face seen on the Sphinx is that of the Middle Kingdom pharaoh Amenemhet II, though I note the original Sphinx has been reworked and the head re-carved.

While in Egypt recently (March 2009) I looked at the Great Sphinx with fresh eyes. I will summarize half a dozen points.

1) The Sphinx Temple (built out of blocks removed from the Sphinx Enclosure when the body of the Sphinx was initially carved) and the Valley Temple to the south show heavy precipitation-induced weathering on their core blocks. These limestone temples were subsequently refurbished with Aswan granite facings during the Old Kingdom. The moat theory cannot explain the nature of the very ancient weathering seen under the Old Kingdom granite veneer.

2) Much heavier surface erosion occurs on the western end of the Sphinx Enclosure, tapering off dramatically toward the eastern end. This is due to ancient rains and the paleohydrology of the area. This erosion is not compatible with pooled water in the enclosure.

3) The highest levels of the middle member strata, seen in the Sphinx Enclosure on the western end, are most severely eroded, as expected from rain. If the moat theory were true, then the lower strata on the eastern end of the Sphinx Enclosure would be most heavily eroded (caused by water being brought in via canals from the Nile), but the opposite is seen.

4) Seismic data demonstrating the depth of weathering below the floor of the Sphinx Enclosure, based on my analyses (calibrated very conservatively), gives a minimum age of at least 7,000 years ago for the core body of the Sphinx. Standing water in the Sphinx Enclosure would not accelerate the depth of weathering below the floor of the enclosure.

5) The vertical fissures observed in the walls of the Sphinx Enclosure show diagnostic signs of having been formed by precipitation and water runoff. They do not show any characteristics that are diagnostic or even suggestive of having been formed by artificial dredging of the Sphinx Enclosure, as Robert Temple suggests.

6) Assuming the argument that the Sphinx sat in a pool, either the water level around the Sphinx was the same as that of the surrounding water table, or the walls and floor of the pool were sealed up and watertight (and any artificial walls, such as on the eastern end, were strong enough to withstand the water pressure). (Note that the current western end of the Sphinx Enclosure is at a much higher elevation than the eastern end [see the figure on page 534 of The Sphinx Mystery by Robert Temple with Olivia Temple, Inner Traditions, 2009], yet clear water erosion is shown at the higher elevations at the western end. Since water seeks its own level, if the water in a supposed moat reached to the height of the western end of the Sphinx Enclosure, then the eastern end as well as the walls along the northern and southern sides must have been built up to a comparable height as the western end. This is independent of whether or not the eastern wall of the enclosure [= western wall of the Sphinx Temple] has a base of natural bedrock or was entirely composed of cut and placed stone.) We know that the ancient water table was well below the level of the floor of the Sphinx Enclosure (or else the Sphinx Temple would have been flooded). The Sphinx Enclosure, if simply carved from the bedrock (as all the evidence suggests) would not have held a deep pool of standing water. The bedrock in the enclosure is highly faulted, and characterized by a karst morphology that would leak like a sieve. The enclosure would need to be fully sealed up (with mortar or cement, perhaps), and there is no evidence of such sealing. If the enclosure had been sealed in such a manner, this would not be compatible with the dredging theory for the vertical fissures. Furthermore, chambers and tunnels under the Sphinx would have been flooded from above if the Sphinx had been sitting in a pool of water, unless the Sphinx Enclosure had been watertight.

To put it simply, the moat theory does not hold water.

an artist's rendering of water running down the walls of the sphinx enclosurean artist's rendering of water versus wind erosion

Admittedly some of my early problems with the Egyptological community seem to have stemmed from the fact that I was introduced, by way of a colleague (Dr. Robert Eddy, at the time a fellow faculty member at my college), to the problem of the Sphinx by the notorious John Anthony West.  West has a reputation as an unorthodox and self‑trained Egyptologist who has little regard for the Egyptological establishment; indeed, he argues that much of the standard interpretation of Egyptian civilization is fundamentally flawed.  West is also seen by some people as a “New Ager” [5] and, dare I say it, a general crackpot and quack (I have come to know West well since I first met him in 1989, and he is neither).  Unfortunately West has used the term “Atlantis” a little too often in propounding some of his ideas and, in my opinion, he has over‑ estimated the age of the Great Sphinx (he has suggested that it may go back to ten or fifteen thousand years B.C.).  I begrudgingly got involved in the whole controversy as a favor to a couple of fellow faculty members.  I heard West out, but did not think there was much chance he was correct in suggesting that the Sphinx was older than its standard attribution‑‑until I got to Egypt.  Then, much to my surprise, I discovered that West might actually be on to something, even if he got a few details wrong (but then West has no formal training as a geologist).

So what if West has authored a book on astrology [6] and propounds other unorthodox views?  This has no more bearing on the hard data relevant to the age of the Great Sphinx than does the color of my eyes, or the politics of Islam‑‑or does it?  In the tight, virtually closed world of Egyptology I soon learned otherwise.  It seemed that everything was politically and psychologically charged.  Egyptologists strike me as overly sensitive about New Agers, psychics, religious fanatics, believers in “pyramid power,” and so forth, perhaps with good reason when you have all sorts of “bizarre” claims as to the meaning and purpose of the pyramids, et cetera [7], including the contention that the two larger Giza pyramids were landing beacons for a spaceport that was built on the Sinai peninsula in ca. 10,500 B.C. [8], and that the Sphinx has some special relationship to the reputed “face on Mars” [9].

Indeed, even some scholars well entrenched within the Egyptological establishment have New Age connections.  It is common knowledge [10] that Dr. Mark Lehner’s interest in ancient Egypt and the Sphinx originated due to his connection with the Association for Research and Enlightenment (A.R.E., the Edgar Cayce Foundation).  Reportedly part of Lehner’s college education was subsidized by the A.R.E. and A.R.E. members; Lehner was to be the A.R.E.’s “man in Cairo.”  Lehner wrote a book [11] many years ago entitled The Egyptian Heritage in which he] discusses the Edgar Cayce psychic readings describing a very ancient society that existed in Egypt, consisting of the survivors of the lost civilization of Atlantis.  I have been told that Lehner’s book is a “classic” in its field among devotees.  According to Edgar Cayce, as reviewed by Lehner, the Sphinx and pyramids were built ca. 10,500 B.C. and under or near the Sphinx was buried a Hall of Records that contained the records from Atlantis.  Interestingly, not only Lehner has former A.R.E. connections.  Dr. Zahi Hawass was also in part supported and patronized by members of the A.R.E.  I personally do not put any stock in psychic readings, stories of Atlantis, or the like, but Lehner’s (and Hawass’s, for that matter) past associations with the A.R.E. do not bother me as long as they do not impinge adversely upon his (their) current scholarship.  Indeed, the A.R.E. funds and publishes much solid research on ancient Egypt [12], despite the fact that much of the research they fund or publish contradicts the Cayce readings.

Given Lehner’s and Hawass’s A.R.E. / “New Age” connections in particular, I find it ironic that they and other Egyptologists have accused me of being a pseudoscientist who aids and abets supposed New Age quacks like West, ( The Mystery of the Sphinx.)  Maybe it is because of their former connections that they are so sensitive about such issues.  I, on the other hand, having never had such connections in the first place, worry little about where the inspiration for scientific hypotheses and analyses come from.  In the case of the age of the Sphinx, just because West might hold some unconventional views, that does not mean that his suggestion (based on the work of Schwaller de Lubicz [13] )‑‑ that the Sphinx is older than its traditional attribution‑‑cannot be used heuristically [14].  West’s preliminary analysis into the age of the Sphinx got me started on some very serious, no‑nonsense scientific research.

Here I might also note that ideology, theology, and nationalism often influence the manner in which archaeological data is interpreted [15].   have to consider the possibility that my redating of the Sphinx may be repugnant to some persons primarily on the basis of political ideology and religious dogma.  Modern Muslim Arabs can sometimes be openly hostile toward ancient Egyptian culture‑‑especially if it is seen as being relatively early and sophisticated.  When I first became interested in the dating of the Sphinx a friend who had lived in Egypt for several years warned me that I might run into such hostility if I dared to suggest that the Sphinx could be even older than already believed.  Initially I did not believe him, but now I tend to think he may have been correct.  Many of the Islamic militants and fundamentalists who are currently attempting to take over the government of Egypt want to destroy all the statues and monuments of ancient Egypt.  Fundamental Islam bans representational art, and all civilization that predates the prophet Mohammed is considered idolatrous.  To suggest that portions of the Sphinx are even older than traditionally thought, implying a sophisticated society that existed even earlier in time, only rubs salt in the open sores of fundamentalists who must face (at least until they can destroy them) the magnificent remains of pharaonic culture.

Over all, I have found that Egyptology is a fascinating, but emotionally charged, discipline. My training as a scientist did not fully prepare me for the strong personalities that I would confront among the ranks of Egyptophiles.  Since becoming involved in research concerning the age of the Sphinx I have discovered that I am not the only scientist to have had a less than positive initial experience when dealing with Egyptologists.  Germer [16] has astutely noted that “In the past, cooperation between the natural sciences and Egyptology has not necessarily been successful in every case.  The Egyptologist is initially suspicious; he often rejects results out of hand, and is unwilling to work with scientific data.  He believes that he can do better with his own methodology.  Only when he reaches the limits of his approach ‑‑ working with ancient texts or archaeological material ‑‑ and would like to ‘prove’ a particular theory by citing ‘objective’ scientific data does the Egyptologist turn to the natural sciences.  If there are different scientific results obtained from the same material, the Egyptologist is often not in a position to determine which is most probable.  Often it is a matter of choosing those ‘scientific’ data that best suit a particular theory, without really knowing whether they are reliable or not.”

Here I do not mean to posit a blanket criticism against all Egyptologists.  Rather, I believe it is important to note that the traditional methodologies used by many Egyptologists often differ in a fundamental manner from the approaches and methodologies used by practitioners in the natural sciences.  At the American Association for the Advancement of Science debate on the age of the Sphinx, for instance, I became quite aware that my adversary, Dr. Lehner, may be a very bright and competent Egyptologist, but he does not “think like a scientist.”  In hindsight I realize that I am perhaps to blame for any lack of communication between Lehner and myself at the February 1992 AAAS meeting for I was incorrectly addressing him as a fellow scientist, which he is not.  Lehner is an Egyptologist and approaches problems and data from that bias.   Perhaps it is time to inject a little more science into Egyptology and see what happens. We might witness some interesting developments.

NOTES:

1.  R. M. Schoch, 1992, “Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza,”  KMT, A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt 3:2 (Summer 1992), 52‑59, 66‑70 (editorial comments and figure captions, not seen by Schoch prior to publication, are by Dennis C. Forbes, Editorial Director, KMT‑‑note that on p. 54 the rear of the Sphinx is on the left side of the photograph, not on the right side as incorrectly stated in the caption); T. L. Dobecki and R. M. Schoch, 1992, “Seismic Investigations in the Vicinity of the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt,”  Geoarchaeology:  An International Journal7:6 (December 1992), 527‑544 (unfortunately an inadvertent error occurs on the first page of this article:  incorrectly it is stated in passing that Khufu “reigned during the late twenty‑sixth millennium B.C.” when of course he reigned during the late twenty‑sixth century, or middle third millennium, B.C.).

2.  R. M. Schoch and J. A. West, 1991, Redating the Great Sphinx of Giza, Egypt.  Geological Society of America abstracts with programs [for the Annual Meeting held in San Diego, October 1991], v. 23, no. 5, p. A253; R. M. Schoch, 1992,  How old is the Sphinx?, Abstracts for the 1992 Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Chicago [February 1992], p. 202.  The latter paper was an invited contribution to a symposium convened especially by the AAAS to discuss my redating of the Great Sphinx.

3.  During the 1992 AAAS debate on the age of the Great Sphinx my staunchest opponents, Drs. Mark Lehner and K. Lal Gauri, were unable to successfully refute my older date for the Great Sphinx.  The AAAS Sphinx debate is well‑described by Paul William Roberts in his book River in the Desert:  Modern Travels in Ancient Egypt (1993, Random House, New York, pp. 127‑135); this debate also formed the basis of an article by Paul William Roberts entitled “Riddle of the Sphinx” which appeared in the March 1993 issue of the Canadian magazine SATURDAY NIGHT  (pp. 22‑24, 26, 28, 73).  See also related discussion of this subject in John Anthony West, 1993, Serpent in the Sky:  The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt (revised edition), Quest Books (The Theosophical Publishing House), Wheaton, IL, pp. 225‑232.      I wrote a popular article for OMNI magazine on my redating of the Great Sphinx (R. M. Schoch, 1992, “A Modern Riddle of the Sphinx,” OMNI 14:11 [August 1992], 46‑48, 68‑69). The editors of OMNI realized how controversial the topic was, so they invited my critics, in the form of Lehner and Gauri, to write a rebuttal to my work.  At first they eagerly agreed to write such a piece, but after months of delay, they refused.  OMNI then published a short afterward that I had written reasserting my redating schema for the Great Sphinx, and the OMNI editors commented that Lehner and Gauri “declined” their invitation to comment on my work (see R. M. Schoch, 1993, Reconsidering the Sphinx. OMNI, v. 15, no. 6 [April 1993], p.31).     While most Egyptologists have violently disagreed, at least initially, with my conclusions regarding the antiquity of the Great Sphinx, there have been exceptions.  For instance, a group of scientists from Waseda University, Tokyo, using different criteria and totally independently from our work, came to similar conclusions regarding the age of the Great Sphinx‑‑namely, that the Sphinx predates the time of Khafre (see Yoshimura, S., T. Nakagawa, and S. Tonouchi, 1988, Non‑Destructive Pyramid Investigation (2), Studies in Egyptian Culture No. 8, Waseda University, Tokyo; Yoshimura, S., S. Tonouchi, and T. Nakagawa, 1987, The First International Symposium on the Application of Modern Technology to Archaeological Explorations at the Giza Necropolis:  The Substance of Speech, Waseda University, Tokyo; Yoshimura, S., S. Tonouchi, T. Nakagawa, and K. Seki, 1987, Non‑Destructive Pyramid Investigation (1) ‑‑ By Electromagnetic Wave Method, Studies in Egyptian Culture No. 6,  Waseda University, Tokyo).

4.  See especially J. A. West, “Civilization Rethought,” Cond Nast Traveler 28:2 (February 1993), 100‑105, 168‑171, 175‑177.  West is the person who first got me involved in redating the Great Sphinx; in this article he succinctly tells the human story behind the Sphinx research.  This article also includes a sidebar and two photographs that I contributed (p. 103), forensic expert Frank Domingo’s analysis and reconstruction of the face of the Sphinx (p. 104), and various comments made by critics of the Sphinx redating hypothesis.      For a taste of the publicity surrounding my Sphinx research, see GSA Today (vol. 2, no. 1., p. 1‑2, January 1992) and articles printed in THE NEW YORK TIMES 24 October 1991, THE WASHINGTON POST 11 November 1991, NEWSDAY [New York] 25 October 1991, THE INDEPENDENT [London] 14 October 1991, USA TODAY 10 October 1991, THE BOSTON GLOBE 23 October 1991, THE SAN DIEGO UNION 23 October 1991, LOS ANGELES TIMES 23 October 1991, THE CHRONICLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION 13 November 1991, 11 December 1991, and 15 January 1992, THE EGYPTIAN GAZETTE 28 October 1991, VANCOUVER SUN 28 October 1991, INTERNATIONAL HERALD TRIBUNE 12 November 1991, and THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE 23 October 1991, THE NEW YORK TIMES 9 February 1992, THE WASHINGTON POST 17 February 1992, THE SAN FRANCISCO CHRONICLE 8 February 1992, THE DAILY TELEGRAPH (London) 10 February 1992, SCIENCE 14 February 1992, NEW SCIENTIST 15 February 1992, THE HOUSTON CHRONICLE 12 February 1992, and THE CHICAGO TRIBUNE 24 February 1992.  For related articles, see THE NEW YORK TIMES 27 June 1992 and 18 July 1992, THE LAW ENFORCEMENT NEWS 15 June 1992, THE TIMES (London) 3 July 1992, SKY MAGAZINE (Delta Airlines) August 1992, FORTEAN TIMES (Number 64) August/September 1992, INSIGHT ON THE NEWS 10 August 1992, pp. 15‑16; an article in MUNDO 21 (issue for September 1992, pp. 130‑137); and the Home Life section of THE PROVIDENCE SUNDAY JOURNAL 28 February 1993.  This is only a partial listing; reputedly the story was covered or reprinted in hundreds of papers around the world, and also mentioned on a number of radio and television shows.

I and/or West were interviewed for a number of radio and television programs.  I was featured in “Science Report, A Video Presentation:  Scientists Tackle Latest Riddle of the Sphinx‑ ‑How Old is It?” produced by the American Institute of Physics, May 1992 (length approximately 2 minutes, plus 5 minutes of extra comments).  This video was aired over various television stations in May and June, 1992.  West and I participated in a live television interview, with Scott Simon, concerning the age of the Great Sphinx on NBC’s Saturday Today Show broadcast from New York City, 22 August 1992.  I also agreed to be interviewed by the Association for Research and Enlightenment/The Edgar Cayce Foundation on the age of the Sphinx; for the published version of this interview see “The Sphinx:  Older by Half?”,  Venture Inward, January/February 1992, pp. 14‑17, 48‑49.

an artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lionan artist's rendering of the sphinx as a male lion with rain falling on him

5.  C. Hedges, “Egypt Holds No Terror for Those in Sphinx’s Spell,” THE NEW YORK TIMES 13 April 1993.

6.  J. A. West, 1991, The Case for Astrology.  Viking Arkana, London and New York.

7.  P. Tompkins, 1978, Secrets of the Great Pyramid.  Harper and  Row, New York.

8.  Z. Sitchin, 1986, “Forgery” in the Great Pyramid.  Venture  Inward [magazine of the Association for Research and Enlightenment and The Edgar Cayce Foundation], November/December 1986, pp. 33‑37.

9.  R. C. Hoagland, 1992 The Monuments of Mars:  A City on the Edge of Forever, North Atlantic Books, Berkeley.

10.  A. R. Smith, 1988, Hugh Lynn Cayce:  About My Father’s Business.  The Donning Company, Publishers, Norfolk/Virginia Beach.

11.  M. Lehner, 1974 [14th printing, 1991], The Egyptian Heritage, based on the Edgar Cayce Readings.  Association for Research and Enlightenment Press, Virginia Beach, VA.

12.  E. E. Cayce, G. Cayce Schwartzer, and D. G. Richards, 1988, Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited.  Harper and Row, San Francisco.

13.  R. A. Schwaller de Lubicz, 1982 [translated by A. and G.  VandenBroeck], Sacred Science: The King of Pharaonic    Theocracy.  Inner Traditions International, New York.

14.  D. G. Richards, 1988, Archaeological anomalies in the Bahamas.  J. Sci. Exploration, 2:181‑ 201; W. D. Gray, 1991, Thinking Critically About New Age Ideas.  Wadsworth Publishing Company, Belmont, California.

15.  N. A. Silberman, 1989, Between Past and Present:  Archaeology, Ideology, and Nationalism in the Modern Middle East.  Henry Holt and Company, New York; C. Hedges, “The Muslims’ Wrath Doesn’t Spare the Mummies,” THE NEW YORK TIMES 23 July 1993.

16.  R. Germer, 1986, Problems of Science in Egyptology, In Science in Egyptology (R. A. David, ed.), Manchester University Press, Manchester, pp. 521‑525 (quotation from p. 521).

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.html

http://www.robertschoch.com/sphinxcontent.htm

TransEvolution: Ridding the planet of pesky humans

image

Rady Ananda
Activist Post

In TransEvolution: The Coming Age of Human Deconstruction, Daniel Estulin crafts a cogent and frightening scenario for the end of Homo sapiens, as new technologies enable genetic changes, bionic replacements and artificial, nanosized neural connections.  We’re not just evolving into a new species, we’re creating a new life form that marries materials science with biology.

It’s exciting and horrifying, and its implications vast.

“Transhumanism fills people’s hopes and minds with dreams of becoming superhuman,” he writes, “but the fact of the matter is that the true goal is the removal of that pesky, human free will itself.”  For those that remain, that is.TransEvolution reveals the darkest of depopulation strategies.

The pinnacle chapter focuses entirely on transhuman developments. Here, he highlights the potentials created by the Information Age, such as:
Already over 100,000 people have cochlear implants, which have a direct neural connection.One-third of all US military missions will be unmanned by 2015.Cyborg soldiers and bipedal machine avatars will allow remote operation.Stealth bombers undetectable by radar, retina enhancement and self-replicating nanobots already exist.

Author of Deconstructing WikileaksThe Octopus Deception, and Shadow Masters, Estulin is an award-winning investigative journalist who came to global fame with his best-selling book,The True Story of the Bilderberg Group, which was translated into 53 languages.

Known as Homo superior, H+ is being developed by “the convergence of the NBIC fields that can improve human performance: nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science,” from an earlier piecementioning Ray Kurzweil.  Estulin deems him the face of transhumanism.

UK health authorities, as well as the US FDAhave been discussing decriminalizing human germline modification for a couple years now, despite earlier catastrophes.  The transhumanist movement is long underway with at least 30 genetically modified humansborn by at least the year 2000, and likely others—not admitted—populate their ranks.

Globalists plan to seize all of the planet’s assets, natural and otherwise.  One of the ways used to achieve these aims is by collapsing the global economy, which he reminds us will not hurt the 1% (or the 30% supporting them).  They’ll simply create a new monetary system that inures to their benefit.

The fictional fiat monetary system we live under today is merely a Ponzi scheme for gambling debts now foisted on the world’s populace, as if “we” owe them for their failures. Its collapse is being engineered, Estulin warns, describing an economic worldview supported by the ideas raised in Naomi Klein’s Shock Doctrine, John Perkins’ Confessions of an Economic Hitman, and the films, The Corporation and The Idiot Cycle.

The orchestrated color revolutions, austerity measures, IMF infrastructure loans, and agricultural systems that put independent farmers in debt are all part and parcel of their plans, he warns.

Some of the book was dense enough to give the reader pause more than once, but given who listens to him, the material is worth digesting.  In a front-page article, Wall Street Italy called Estulin “one of the few people who understands the current crisis.” He has given two press conferences at the European Parliament on the Bilderberg group and the international monetary crisis. In 2010, he met with Fidel Castro and gave a speech to the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the Venezuelan armed forces.

Global economic destruction supports a number of strategies to ensure the 1% seizes control of all remaining assets, natural and otherwise.  Financial collapse cripples nation-states, an idea the merchant globalists deem “quaint” in light of modern economic realities where corporations write the rules via trade agreements that supersede national laws.

Spending some time on trade agreements, Estulin shows how corporations rule today regardless of national borders, and how these trade agreements serve to weaken, sicken and starve humanity. From an earlier piece, the TransPacific Partnership, for instance, “forces trade in genetically modified organisms. It fast-tracks patent approval and forbids nations from banning genetically modified organisms solely on the grounds that it already bans them.”

So, how does the recent rash of suicided banksters impact on the ongoing engineered economic collapse?  Estulin had much to say on this in an email to me:

With the global financial meltdown in its last phase of disintegration, the elite and their allies on Wall Street want to dictate to other sovereign countries the conditions that allow them to continue the plunder of their wealth in order to keep afloat its speculative cancerous system. Any country that refuses to submit to the conditions imposed by the elite is threatened with war or “regime change”, as we have seen in Ukraine and other countries.

The bankers who died, be they suicides, accidents, murders or whatever, all worked in very important positions and for the corporations who formed part of the World Company Ltd. [an entity described in detail in his book].

The case of Bitcoin CEO Autumn Radtke is a bit muddy at this point, but in the intelligence world there is a saying, “Coincidences do not exist.  There are well orchestrated and badly orchestrated operations.”

Economic collapse also converts the one billion starving humans into fertilizer, while weakening and sickening the next couple billion who live on less than $2 a day.  The following graph from the UN shows, in the green line, how numbers may actually decrease this century. (Prepared by futuretimeline.net)

image

Given Fukushima, Chernobyl, Three Mile Island and the 2,000 exploded nuclear bombs over the last 70 years, along with industrial pollution, genetically modified food laced with nanobots and toxic chemicals, and poisonous pharmaceuticals, that green line seems the most likely scenario.

This is known in population dynamics as creating a “bottleneck” where, along with sheer numbers, much of the genetic diversity of a species is forever lost.  This does not bother eugenicists.  They plan to alter the human genome much further, to enable them to thrive under the toxic sky.

Estulin estimates the target population is between one and two billion. If the Georgia Guidestones are any guide, the real target is half a billion remaining humans, howsoever evolved.

His book is backed by acquired government plans that dare you to question the roadmap he sees when reading them. “For the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers to survive, most of us have to die,” he explains in this video interview and throughout the book:

A little later in the book:

Post-humanity will be a new human, which has been genetically engineered and brain-chipped for total control.  Part man and part machine, the new man will no longer have a need of the sexual reproductive function.  If the elite’s plan is to reduce the population, can you think of a better way to do that?

Estulin predicts the planet’s rulers hope to escape the planet they destroyed, sending the new Homo superior (H+) into space to colonize new worlds.  They (The Hierarchy Enslaving You) have decided that the human experiment is over, apparently.

As broad as he paints the landscape – toxic agriculture and pharmaceuticals, controlled economics, mass media disinformation, NBIC technology and HAARP-like mind control—Estulin missed geoengineering as one of the methods currently employed to control and/or remove the masses.  This decades-long multi-pronged program fully supports his theme of depopulation.

Weather control via aerial spraying and manipulation of the jet stream allows the controllers to determine who gets drought and who gets rain. As Dane Wigington warns inEngineered Drought Catastrophe, Target California, “The climate engineers literally have California by the throat and it does not appear they are going to let go anytime soon.”

Some Morgellons sufferers and key researchers like Cliff Carnicom link geoengineering with transhumanism.  Unique to Morgellons disease (or syndrome) is the presence of chimera fibers that extrude from the body. They contain biological and robotic features, proving they’re engineered; they also self-replicate. These fibers were collected from patients and after they fell from the sky as spidery filaments (not to be confused with Gossamer showers, a natural arachnid phenomenon).

From an earlier piece, Morgellons patient Kandy Griffin, president of Morgellons Research Group, put it right out there in 2011:

Morgellons is not a disease. It is a process. It is a form of forced/directed evolution of the human genome. It is the fetal stage of transhumanism, and it is upon us. This stealth project is being carried out with the use of the daily chemtrail operations, which are happening globally.

Researcher Sofia Smallstorm also explores the idea in her speech, From Chemtrails to Pseudo-Life: The Dark Agenda of Synthetic Biology.

Even world-renowned epidemiologist Dr Rosalie Bertell describes the deleterious effect of geoengineering in her 2001 book, Planet Earth: Latest Weapon of War.  In discussing the High-Frequency Active Auroral Research Program, which went online in 1995, Bertell writes:

The Federal Environmental Impact Statement filed by the air force for HAARP says that its transmissions ‘can raise the internal body temperature of nearby people, ignite road flares in the trunks of cars, detonate aerial munitions used in electronic fuses, and scramble aircraft communications, navigation and flight control systems.’  Even small increases in electromagnetic radiation can cause health problems such as cataracts and leukemia, also altering brain chemistry, blood sugar levels, blood pressure and heart rates.

Depopulation proceeds apace.

To save the biosphere from globalist ecocidal greed (though they blame human population numbers), they propose to convince the masses that human-directed human evolution is the only course of action to take.  In fact, a new film, Crossroads: Labor pains of a new worldview, soft sells the entire notion of transhumanism and directly states that the goal is to create an entirely new species.  Winner of numerous awards, the film has already captured the hearts and minds of the independent film industry and critics alike.

The masses will eat it up, right along with their genetically modified, chemically doused, nano-adulterated foods and their daily regimen of pharmaceuticals.

In TransEvolution, Estulin makes another significant contribution to the global conspiracy library, clarifying and furthering our assimilation and absorption of dense material.  Forewarned is forearmed.

Daniel Estulin also has a weekly TV show on RT network in Spanish. Desde la Sombra (From the Shadows) is the highest rated show in the Spanish speaking world with over 6 million viewers a week. http://actualidad.rt.com/programas/desde_la_sombra. You can also follow him atwww.danielestulin.com/.